153 research outputs found

    Whole exome sequencing analysis of urine trans-renal tumour DNA in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

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    Background The analysis of circulating free tumour DNA (ctDNA) in blood, commonly referred as liquid biopsy, is being used to characterise patients with solid cancers. Tumour-specific genetic variants can also be present in DNA isolated from other body fluids, such as urine. Unlike blood, urine sampling is non-invasive, can be self-performed, and allows recurrent longitudinal monitoring. The features of tumour DNA that clears from the glomerular filtration barrier, named trans-renal tumour DNA (trtDNA), are largely unexplored. Patients and methods Specimens were collected from 24 patients with KRAS or BRAF mutant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Driver mutations were assessed by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in ctDNA from plasma and trtDNA from urine. Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed in DNA isolated from tissue, plasma and urine. Results Out of the 24 CRC cases, only four had sufficient DNA to allow WES analyses in urine and plasma. We found that tumour alterations primarily reside in low molecular weight fragments (less than 112\u2009bp). In patients whose trtDNA was more than 2.69% of the urine derived DNA, cancer-specific molecular alterations, mutational signatures and copy number profiles identified in urine DNA are comparable with those detected in plasma ctDNA. Conclusions With current technologies, WES analysis of trtDNA is feasible in a small fraction of mCRC patients. Tumour-related genetic information is mainly present in low molecular weight DNA fragments. Although the limited amounts of trtDNA poses analytical challenges, enrichment of low molecular weight DNAs and optimised computational tools can improve the detection of tumour-specific genetic information in urine

    Mutation-enrichment next-generation sequencing for quantitative detection of KRAS mutations in urine cell-free DNA from patients with advanced cancers

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    Purpose: Tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from urine of patients with cancer offers noninvasive biological material for detection of cancer-related molecular abnormalities such as mutations in Exon 2 of KRASExperimental Design: A quantitative, mutation-enrichment next-generation sequencing test for detecting KRASG12/G13 mutations in urine cfDNA was developed, and results were compared with clinical testing of archival tumor tissue and plasma cfDNA from patients with advanced cancer.Results: With 90 to 110 mL of urine, the KRASG12/G13 cfDNA test had an analytical sensitivity of 0.002% to 0.006% mutant copies in wild-type background. In 71 patients, the concordance between urine cfDNA and tumor was 73% (sensitivity, 63%; specificity, 96%) for all patients and 89% (sensitivity, 80%; specificity, 100%) for patients with urine samples of 90 to 110 mL. Patients had significantly fewer KRASG12/G13 copies in urine cfDNA during systemic therapy than at baseline or disease progression (P = 0.002). Compared with no changes or increases in urine cfDNA KRASG12/G13 copies during therapy, decreases in these measures were associated with longer median time to treatment failure (P = 0.03).Conclusions: A quantitative, mutation-enrichment next-generation sequencing test for detecting KRASG12/G13 mutations in urine cfDNA had good concordance with testing of archival tumor tissue. Changes in mutated urine cfDNA were associated with time to treatment failure

    Preoperative chemoradiation with capecitabine, irinotecan and cetuximab in rectal cancer: significance of pre-treatment and post-resection RAS mutations

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    Background: The influence of EGFR pathway mutations on cetuximab-containing rectal cancer preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) is uncertain. Methods: In a prospective phase II trial (EXCITE), patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined non-metastatic rectal adenocarinoma threatening/involving the surgical resection plane received pelvic radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine, irinotecan and cetuximab. Resection was recommended 8 weeks later. The primary endpoint was histopathologically clear (R0) resection margin. Pre-planned retrospective DNA pyrosequencing (PS) and next generation sequencing (NGS) of KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA and BRAF was performed on the pre-treatment biopsy and resected specimen. Results: Eighty-two patients were recruited and 76 underwent surgery, with R0 resection in 67 (82%, 90%CI: 73–88%) (four patients with clinical complete response declined surgery). Twenty–four patients (30%) had an excellent clinical or pathological response (ECPR). Using NGS 24 (46%) of 52 matched biopsies/resections were discrepant: ten patients (19%) gained 13 new resection mutations compared to biopsy (12 KRAS, one PIK3CA) and 18 (35%) lost 22 mutations (15 KRAS, 7 PIK3CA). Tumours only ever testing RAS wild-type had significantly greater ECPR than tumours with either biopsy or resection RAS mutations (14/29 [48%] vs 10/51 [20%], P=0.008), with a trend towards increased overall survival (HR 0.23, 95% CI 0.05–1.03, P=0.055). Conclusions: This regimen was feasible and the primary study endpoint was met. For the first time using pre-operative rectal CRT, emergence of clinically important new resection mutations is described, likely reflecting intratumoural heterogeneity manifesting either as treatment-driven selective clonal expansion or a geographical biopsy sampling miss