2,595 research outputs found

    A parameterisation of single and multiple muons in the deep water or ice

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    Atmospheric muons play an important role in underwater/ice neutrino detectors. In this paper, a parameterisation of the flux of single and multiple muon events, their lateral distribution and of their energy spectrum is presented. The kinematics parameters were modelled starting from a full Monte Carlo simulation of the interaction of primary cosmic rays with atmospheric nuclei; secondary muons reaching the sea level were propagated in the deep water. The parametric formulas are valid for a vertical depth of 1.5-5 km w.e. and up to 85 deg for the zenith angle, and can be used as input for a fast simulation of atmospheric muons in underwater/ice detectors.Comment: 25 pages, 8 figure

    CP violation and mass hierarchy at medium baselines in the large theta(13) era

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    The large value of theta(13) recently measured by rector and accelerator experiments opens unprecedented opportunities for precision oscillation physics. In this paper, we reconsider the physics reach of medium baseline superbeams. For theta(13) ~ 9 degree we show that facilities at medium baselines -- i.e. L ~ O(1000 km) -- remain optimal for the study of CP violation in the leptonic sector, although their ultimate precision strongly depends on experimental systematics. This is demonstrated in particular for facilities of practical interest in Europe: a CERN to Gran Sasso and CERN to Phyasalmi nu_mu beam based on the present SPS and on new high power 50 GeV proton driver. Due to the large value of theta(13), spectral information can be employed at medium baselines to resolve the sign ambiguity and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. However, longer baselines, where matter effects dominate the nu_mu->nu_e transition, can achieve much stronger sensitivity to sign(Delta m^2) even at moderate exposures.Comment: 14 pages, 14 figures, version to appear in EPJ
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