47 research outputs found

    Intelligent Omni-Surfaces Aided Wireless Communications: Does the Reciprocity Hold?

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    Intelligent omni-surfaces (IOS) have attracted great attention recently due to its potential to achieve full-dimensional communications by simultaneously reflecting and refracting signals toward both sides of the surface. However, it still remains an open question whether the reciprocity holds between the uplink and downlink channels in the IOS-aided wireless communications. In this work, we first present a physics-compliant IOS related channel model, based on which the channel reciprocity is investigated. We then demonstrate the angle-dependent electromagnetic response of the IOS element in terms of both incident and departure angles. This serves as the key feature of IOS that drives our analytical results on beam non-reciprocity. Finally, simulation and experimental results are provided to verify our theoretical analyses.Comment: 5 pages, 6 figure

    The Predictive Value of Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction For Left Ventricular Reverse Remodelling in Dilated Cardiomyopathy

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    AIMS: to evaluate the degree of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) first-pass perfusion parameters and to examine the correlation between myocardial perfusion and left ventricle reverse remodelling (LVRR). METHODS: In this study, 94 DCM patients and 35 healthy controls matched for age and sex were included. Myocardial perfusion parameters, including upslope, time to maximum signal intensity (Time RESULTS: With a median follow-up period of 12 months [interquartile range (IQR), 8-13], 41 DCM patients (44%) achieved LVRR. Compared with healthy controls, DCM patients presented CMD with reduced upslope, SI CONCLUSIONS: CMD could be found in DCM patients and was more impaired in patients with non-LVRR than LVRR patients. Tim

    Effect of intermittent fasting on circulating inflammatory markers in obesity: A review of human trials

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    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation. Weight loss, by means of dietary restriction, has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation. Intermittent fasting has recently gained popularity as a weight loss diet, but its effects on inflammatory markers in individuals with obesity have yet to be summarized. Accordingly, this review examined how the two main forms of intermittent fasting, i.e., time restricted eating (TRE) and alternate day fasting (ADF), impact body weight and key circulating inflammatory markers (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), in adults with obesity. Results from this review reveal that TRE with various eating window durations (4–10 h per day) has no effect on circulating levels of CRP, TNF-alpha or IL-6, with 1–5% weight loss. As for ADF, reductions in CRP concentrations were noted when >6% weight loss was achieved. However, ADF had no effect on TNF-alpha or IL-6 concentrations, with this degree of weight loss. Thus, intermittent fasting has little or no effect on key inflammatory markers, but more research is warranted to confirm these preliminary findings

    The predictive value of coronary microvascular dysfunction for left ventricular reverse remodelling in dilated cardiomyopathy

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    AimsTo evaluate the degree of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) first-pass perfusion parameters and to examine the correlation between myocardial perfusion and left ventricle reverse remodelling (LVRR).MethodsIn this study, 94 DCM patients and 35 healthy controls matched for age and sex were included. Myocardial perfusion parameters, including upslope, time to maximum signal intensity (Timemax), maximum signal intensity (SImax), baseline signal intensity (SIbaseline), and the difference between maximum and baseline signal intensity (SImax−baseline) were measured. Additionally, left ventricular (LV) structure, function parameters, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) were also recorded. The parameters were compared between healthy controls and DCM patients. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to determine the predictors of LVRR.ResultsWith a median follow-up period of 12 months [interquartile range (IQR), 8–13], 41 DCM patients (44%) achieved LVRR. Compared with healthy controls, DCM patients presented CMD with reduced upslope, SIbaseline, and increased Timemax (all p < 0.01). Timemax, SImax, and SImax−baseline were further decreased in LVRR than non-LVRR group (Timemax: 60.35 [IQR, 51.46–74.71] vs. 72.41 [IQR, 59.68–97.70], p = 0.017; SImax: 723.52 [IQR, 209.76–909.27] vs. 810.92 [IQR, 581.30–996.89], p = 0.049; SImax−baseline: 462.99 [IQR, 152.25–580.43] vs. 551.13 [IQR, 402.57–675.36], p = 0.038). In the analysis of multivariate logistic regression, Timemax [odds ratio (OR) 0.98; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.95–1.00; p = 0.032)], heart rate (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01–1.08; p = 0.029), LV remodelling index (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.06–3.00; p = 0.038) and LGE extent (OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73–0.96; p = 0.021) were independent predictors of LVRR.ConclusionsCMD could be found in DCM patients and was more impaired in patients with non-LVRR than LVRR patients. Timemax at baseline was an independent predictor of LVRR in DCM

    Advances of MnO2 nanomaterials as novel agonists for the development of cGAS-STING-mediated therapeutics

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    As an essential micronutrient, manganese plays an important role in the physiological process and immune process. In recent decades, cGAS-STING pathway, which can congenitally recognize exogenous and endogenous DNA for activation, has been widely reported to play critical roles in the innate immunity against some important diseases, such as infections and tumor. Manganese ion (Mn2+) has been recently proved to specifically bind with cGAS and activate cGAS-STING pathway as a potential cGAS agonist, however, is significantly restricted by the low stability of Mn2+ for further medical application. As one of the most stable forms of manganese, manganese dioxide (MnO2) nanomaterials have been reported to show multiple promising functions, such as drug delivery, anti-tumor and anti-infection activities. More importantly, MnO2 nanomaterials are also found to be a potential candidate as cGAS agonist by transforming into Mn2+, which indicates their potential for cGAS-STING regulations in different diseased conditions. In this review, we introduced the methods for the preparation of MnO2 nanomaterials as well as their biological activities. Moreover, we emphatically introduced the cGAS-STING pathway and discussed the detailed mechanisms of MnO2 nanomaterials for cGAS activation by converting into Mn2+. And we also discussed the application of MnO2 nanomaterials for disease treatment by regulating cGAS-STING pathway, which might benefit the future development of novel cGAS-STING targeted treatments based on MnO2 nanoplatforms

    Engineering zinc oxide hybrid selenium nanoparticles for synergetic anti-tuberculosis treatment by combining Mycobacterium tuberculosis killings and host cell immunological inhibition

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    IntroductionAs a deadly disease induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), tuberculosis remains one of the top killers among infectious diseases. The low intracellular Mtb killing efficiency of current antibiotics introduced the long duration anti-TB therapy in clinic with strong side effects and increased drug-resistant mutants. Therefore, the exploration of novel anti-TB agents with potent anti-TB efficiency becomes one of the most urgent issues for TB therapies. MethodsHere, we firstly introduced a novel method for the preparation of zinc oxide-selenium nanoparticles (ZnO-Se NPs) by the hybridization of zinc oxide and selenium to combine the anti-TB activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles and selenium nanoparticles. We characterized the ZnO-Se NPs by dynamic laser light scattering and transmission electron microscopy, and then tested the inhibition effects of ZnO-Se NPs on extracellular Mtb by colony-forming units (CFU) counting, bacterial ATP analysis, bacterial membrane potential analysis and scanning electron microscopy imaging. We also analyzed the effects of ZnO-Se NPs on the ROS production, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis, autophagy, polarization and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway of Mtb infected THP-1 macrophages. At last, we also tested the effects of ZnO-Se NPs on intracellular Mtb in THP-1 cells by colony-forming units (CFU) counting. ResultsThe obtained spherical core-shell ZnO-Se NPs with average diameters of 90 nm showed strong killing effects against extracellular Mtb, including BCG and the virulent H37Rv, by disrupting the ATP production, increasing the intracellular ROS level and destroying the membrane structures. More importantly, ZnO-Se NPs could also inhibit intracellular Mtb growth by promoting M1 polarization to increase the production of antiseptic nitric oxide and also promote apoptosis and autophagy of Mtb infected macrophages by increasing the intracellular ROS, disrupting mitochondria membrane potential and inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. DiscussionThese ZnO-Se NPs with synergetic anti-TB efficiency by combining the Mtb killing effects and host cell immunological inhibition effects were expected to serve as novel anti-TB agents for the development of more effective anti-TB strategy

    Feasibility study of mitigation and suppression strategies for controlling COVID-19 outbreaks in London and Wuhan

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    Recent outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led a global pandemic cross the world. Most countries took two main interventions: suppression like immediate lockdown cities at epicenter or mitigation that slows down but not stopping epidemic for reducing peak healthcare demand. Both strategies have their apparent merits and limitations; it becomes extremely hard to conduct one intervention as the most feasible way to all countries. Targeting at this problem, this paper conducted a feasibility study by defining a mathematical model named SEMCR, it extended traditional SEIR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered) model by adding two key features: a direct connection between Exposed and Recovered populations, and separating infections into mild and critical cases. It defined parameters to classify two stages of COVID-19 control: active contain by isolation of cases and contacts, passive contain by suppression or mitigation. The model was fitted and evaluated with public dataset containing daily number of confirmed active cases including Wuhan and London during January 2020 and March 2020. The simulated results showed that 1) Immediate suppression taken in Wuhan significantly reduced the total exposed and infectious populations, but it has to be consistently maintained at least 90 days (by the middle of April 2020). Its success heavily relied on sufficiently external support from other places of China. This mode was not suitable to other countries that have no sufficient health resources. 2) In London, it is possible to take a hybrid intervention of suppression and mitigation for every 2 or 3 weeks over a longer period to balance the total infections and economic loss. While the total infectious populations in this scenario would be possibly 2 times than the one taking suppression, economic loss and recovery of London would be less affected. 3) Both in Wuhan and London cases, one important issue of fitting practical data was that there were a large portion (probably 62.9% in Wuhan) of self-recovered populations that were asymptomatic or mild symptomatic. These people might think they have been healthy at home and did not go to hospital for COVID-19 tests. Early release of intervention intensity potentially increased a risk of the second outbreak

    細胞集団運動時のERK活性波におけるEGFRリガンドの重畳性

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    京都大学新制・課程博士博士(医学)甲第23761号医博第4807号新制||医||1056(附属図書館)京都大学大学院医学研究科医学専攻(主査)教授 YOUSSEFIAN Shohab, 教授 羽賀 博典, 教授 安達 泰治学位規則第4条第1項該当Doctor of Medical ScienceKyoto UniversityDFA
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