4 research outputs found

    Application of Nutritional Immunology in the Mitigation of Economic and Production losses in the Poultry Industry Associated with Food-borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, and Necrotic Enteritis.

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    Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use of antibiotics except for coccidiostats and histomonostats in livestock production effective from January 1, 2006 (Anadón et al., 2018). In 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration recommended voluntary regulation on the use of medically important antibiotics in food animal production (Sneeringer et al., 2015). Regulations on the use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters led to the reemergence of poultry pathogens that were otherwise manageable. An increase in the consumer preference for organically raised and antibiotic-free poultry products has necessitated the need to find an alternative to antibiotics in commercial poultry production. Several potential alternatives are currently available in the market such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, phytobiotics, engineered peptides, enzymes, organic acids, egg yolk immunoglobulins, bacteriophages, vaccination, and nutraceuticals (Low et al., 2021). This review aims at introducing the recent progress in the field of nutritional immunology in the prevention and control of enteric diseases of poultry with special emphasis on food-borne pathogens, coccidiosis, and necrotic enteritis

    Beyond protein synthesis: the emerging role of arginine in poultry nutrition and host-microbe interactions

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    Arginine is a functional amino acid essential for various physiological processes in poultry. The dietary essentiality of arginine in poultry stems from the absence of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthase-I. The specific requirement for arginine in poultry varies based on several factors, such as age, dietary factors, and physiological status. Additionally, arginine absorption and utilization are also influenced by the presence of antagonists. However, dietary interventions can mitigate the effect of these factors affecting arginine utilization. In poultry, arginine is utilized by four enzymes, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase arginase, arginine decarboxylase and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). The intermediates and products of arginine metabolism by these enzymes mediate the different physiological functions of arginine in poultry. The most studied function of arginine in humans, as well as poultry, is its role in immune response. Arginine exerts immunomodulatory functions primarily through the metabolites nitric oxide (NO), ornithine, citrulline, and polyamines, which take part in inflammation or the resolution of inflammation. These properties of arginine and arginine metabolites potentiate its use as a nutraceutical to prevent the incidence of enteric diseases in poultry. Furthermore, arginine is utilized by the poultry gut microbiota, the metabolites of which might have important implications for gut microbial composition, immune regulation, metabolism, and overall host health. This comprehensive review provides insights into the multifaceted roles of arginine and arginine metabolites in poultry nutrition and wellbeing, with particular emphasis on the potential of arginine in immune regulation and microbial homeostasis in poultry

    Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Their Manipulation for Improved Growth and Performance in Chickens

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    The gut of warm-blooded animals is colonized by microbes possibly constituting at least 100 times more genetic material of microbial cells than that of the somatic cells of the host. These microbes have a profound effect on several physiological functions ranging from energy metabolism to the immune response of the host, particularly those associated with the gut immune system. The gut of a newly hatched chick is typically sterile but is rapidly colonized by microbes in the environment, undergoing cycles of development. Several factors such as diet, region of the gastrointestinal tract, housing, environment, and genetics can influence the microbial composition of an individual bird and can confer a distinctive microbiome signature to the individual bird. The microbial composition can be modified by the supplementation of probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics. Supplementing these additives can prevent dysbiosis caused by stress factors such as infection, heat stress, and toxins that cause dysbiosis. The mechanism of action and beneficial effects of probiotics vary depending on the strains used. However, it is difficult to establish a relationship between the gut microbiome and host health and productivity due to high variability between flocks due to environmental, nutritional, and host factors. This review compiles information on the gut microbiota, dysbiosis, and additives such as probiotics, postbiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, which are capable of modifying gut microbiota and elaborates on the interaction of these additives with chicken gut commensals, immune system, and their consequent effects on health and productivity. Factors to be considered and the unexplored potential of genetic engineering of poultry probiotics in addressing public health concerns and zoonosis associated with the poultry industry are discussed

    Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Review on the Pathogen, Pathogenesis, and Prevention

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    Clostridium perfringens type A and C are the primary etiological agents associated with necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry. The predisposing factors implicated in the incidence of NE changes the physical properties of the gut, immunological status of birds, and disrupt the gut microbial homeostasis, causing an over-proliferation of C. perfringens. The principal virulence factors contributing to the pathogenesis of NE are the α-toxin, β-toxin, and NetB toxin. The immune response to NE in poultry is mediated by the Th1 pathway or cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. C. perfringens type A and C are also pathogenic in humans, and hence are of public health significance. C. perfringens intoxications are the third most common bacterial foodborne disease after Salmonella and Campylobacter. The restrictions on the use of antibiotics led to an increased incidence of NE in poultry. Hence, it is essential to develop alternative strategies to keep the prevalence of NE under check. The control strategies rely principally on the positive modulation of host immune response, nutritional manipulation, and pathogen reduction. Current knowledge on the etiology, pathogenesis, predisposing factors, immune response, effect on the gut microbial homeostasis, and preventative strategies of NE in this post-antibiotic era is addressed in this review