346 research outputs found

    Physics and measurements of magnetic materials

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    Magnetic materials, both hard and soft, are used extensively in several components of particle accelerators. Magnetically soft iron-nickel alloys are used as shields for the vacuum chambers of accelerator injection and extraction septa; Fe-based material is widely employed for cores of accelerator and experiment magnets; soft spinel ferrites are used in collimators to damp trapped modes; innovative materials such as amorphous or nanocrystalline core materials are envisaged in transformers for high-frequency polyphase resonant convertors for application to the International Linear Collider (ILC). In the field of fusion, for induction cores of the linac of heavy-ion inertial fusion energy accelerators, based on induction accelerators requiring some 107 kg of magnetic materials, nanocrystalline materials would show the best performance in terms of core losses for magnetization rates as high as 105 T/s to 107 T/s. After a review of the magnetic properties of materials and the different types of magnetic behaviour, this paper deals with metallurgical aspects of magnetism. The influence of the metallurgy and metalworking processes of materials on their microstructure and magnetic properties is studied for different categories of soft magnetic materials relevant for accelerator technology. Their metallurgy is extensively treated. Innovative materials such as iron powder core materials, amorphous and nanocrystalline materials are also studied. A section considers the measurement, both destructive and non-destructive, of magnetic properties. Finally, a section discusses magnetic lag effects.Comment: 25 pages, presented at the CERN Accelerator School CAS 2009: Specialised Course on Magnets, Bruges, 16-25 June 200


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    Abstract The coating of niobium on copper is the technology successfully used for the production of LEP accelerating cavities. A good understanding of the influence of the different coating parameters on the film properties can contribute to improve the RF performance of such cavities. Several copper samples were coated with a 1.5 µm thick niobium film in a cylindrical magnetron sputtering system, using argon as discharge gas. To study the mere effect of the coating temperature, a 500MHz cavity was equipped with three sample-holders on the equatorial region. The latter were kept at different temperatures during the baking and the simultaneous coating (150°C, 250°C and 350°C). The films were characterised by measuring the RRR, critical temperature, total Ar content, lattice parameter. Films deposited at higher temperatures show higher RRR and lower Ar content. The film lattice parameter and, consequently, the critical temperature change with the coating temperature. The results are interpreted in term of the film bombardment during the growth, of higher niobium surface mobility at higher temperature and of the different thermal expansion coefficients between the niobium film and the substrate. . Introduction The superconducting cavity technology for particle accelerators is based essentially on forming and welding of bulk niobium sheets Films show quite a different RF behaviour with respect to bulk. In particular, due to the lower RRR, the surface resistance of a niobium film at 4.2 K is lower than for bulk. Defects present in the film act as pinning centres for the magnetic field resulting in a dependence of the surface resistance on the trapped magnetic flux of ~5nΩ/G compared to >100nΩ/G for the bulk case Proceedings of the 1997 Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Abano Terme (Padova), Italy SRF97D11 2 . Experimental Procedure Samples are produced in a cylindrical magnetron sputtering configuration inside a 500 MHz cavity (see Proceedings of the 1997 Workshop on RF Superconductivity, Abano Terme (Padova), Italy SRF97D11 891 The technique actually used to fully extract all the argon consists in melting the niobium film. To do so we put the niobium film in contact with a nickel foil and we heat them together. Nickel and niobium form an eutectic (Nb 0.40 Ni 0.60 ) which melts at 1175 o C. All the gases extracted from the melted film are cumulated in the furnace. When the film is completely melted we open a by-pass that connects the furnace to an UHV system, where a calibrated Residual Gas Analyser (RGA) allows a quantitative measurement of argon The three samples were measured in sequence, and the argon calibration was performed before and after the measurement. The experimental results for the 3 samples are illustrated in 0.

    Material Selection and Characterization for High Gradient RF Applications

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    The selection of candidate materials for the accelerating cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is carried out in parallel with high power RF testing. The maximum DC breakdown field of copper, copper alloys, refractory metals, aluminium and titanium have been measured with a dedicated setup. Higher maximum fields are obtained for refractory metals and for titanium, which exhibits, however, important damages after conditioning. Fatigue behaviour of copper alloys has been studied for surface and bulk by pulsed laser irradiation and ultrasonic excitation, respectively. The selected copper alloys show consistently higher fatigue resistance than copper in both experiments. In order to obtain the best local properties in the device a possible solution is a bi-metallic assembly. Junctions of molybdenum and copper-zirconium UNS C15000 alloy, achieved by HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) diffusion bonding or explosion bonding were evaluated for their mechanical strength. The reliability of the results obtained with both techniques should be improved. Testing in DC and radiofrequency (RF) is continued in order to select materials for a bi-metal exhibiting superior properties with respect to the combination C15000-Mo

    Finite element stress analysis of the CMS magnet coil

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.38 m and the aperture is 6.36 m. This is achieved with a 4 layer-5 module superconducting Al-stabilized coil energised at a nominal current of 20 kA. The finite element analysis (FEA) carried out is axisymmetric elasto-plastic. FEA has also been carried out on the suspension system and on the conductor. (8 refs)

    Design of a high power production target for the Beam Dump Facility at CERN

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    The Beam Dump Facility (BDF) project is a proposed general-purpose facility at CERN, dedicated to beam dump and fixed target experiments. In its initial phase, the facility is foreseen to be exploited by the Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) experiment. Physics requirements call for a pulsed 400 GeV/c proton beam as well as the highest possible number of protons on target (POT) each year of operation, in order to search for feebly interacting particles. The target/dump assembly lies at the heart of the facility, with the aim of safely absorbing the full high intensity Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam, while maximizing the production of charmed and beauty mesons. High-Z materials are required for the target/dump, in order to have the shortest possible absorber and reduce muon background for the downstream experiment. The high average power deposited on target (305 kW) creates a challenge for heat removal. During the BDF facility Comprehensive Design Study (CDS), launched by CERN in 2016, extensive studies have been carried out in order to define and assess the target assembly design. These studies are described in the present contribution, which details the proposed design of the BDF production target, as well as the material selection process and the optimization of the target configuration and beam dilution. One of the specific challenges and novelty of this work is the need to consider new target materials, such as a molybdenum alloy (TZM) as core absorbing material and Ta2.5W as cladding. Thermo-structural and fluid dynamics calculations have been performed to evaluate the reliability of the target and its cooling system under beam operation. In the framework of the target comprehensive design, a preliminary mechanical design of the full target assembly has also been carried out, assessing the feasibility of the whole target system.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figure

    Design, construction, and quality tests of the large Al-alloy mandrels for the CMS coil

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Almost all large indirectly cooled solenoids constructed to date (e.g., Zeus, Aleph, Delphi, Finuda, Babar) comprise Al-alloy mandrels fabricated by welding together plates bent to the correct radius. The external cylinder of CMS will consist of five modules having an inner diameter of 6.8 m, a thickness of 50 mm and an individual length of 2.5 m. It will be manufactured by bending and welding thick plates (75 mm) of the strain hardened aluminum alloy EN AW-5083-H321. The required high geometrical tolerances and mechanical strength (a yield strength of 209 MPa at 4.2 K) impose a critical appraisal of the design, the fabrication techniques, the welding procedures and the quality controls. The thick flanges at both ends of each module will be fabricated as seamless rolled rings, circumferentially welded to the body of the modules. The developed procedures and manufacturing methods will be validated by the construction of a prototype mandrel of full diameter and reduced length (670 mm). (7 refs)

    Aluminum alloy production for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. To reinforce the high-purity (99.998%) Al-stabilized conductor of the magnet against the magnetic loadings experienced during operation at 4.2 K, two continuous sections of Al-alloy (AA) reinforcement are Electron Beam (EB) welded to it. The reinforcements have a section of 24*18 mm and are produced in continuous 2.55 km lengths. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcement due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened states, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperature and good EB weldability. Each of the continuous lengths of the reinforcement is extruded billet on billet and press quenched on-line from the extrusion temperature in an industrial extrusion plant. In order to insure the ready EB weldability of the reinforcement onto the pure aluminum of the insert, tight dimensional tolerances and proper surface finish of the reinforcement are required in the as-extruded state. As well, in order to facilitate the winding operation of the conductor, the uniformity of the mechanical properties of the extruded reinforcement, especially at the billet on billet joints, is critical. To achieve these requirements in an industrial environment, substantial effort was made to refine existing production techniques and to monitor critical extrusion parameters during production. This paper summarizes the main results obtained during the establishment of the extrusion line and of the production phase of the reinforcement. (10 refs)

    Structural and RF properties of niobium films deposited onto annealed niobium resonators

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    Studies have been performed on the properties of niobium thin films sputtered onto solid niobium TM010 resonators at 1.5 GHz. The purpose of the work is to study the behaviour of the film's RF and str uctural properties as a function of heat treatment temperature in order to determine if and at what treatment temperature the properties of the films merge with those of the bulk. Niobium resonators h ave been heat treated at temperatures up to 1100°C in a vacuum furnace inside a niobium box surrounded by a titanium gettering protection. Subsequently, they have been sputter coated with a niobium fi lm. Following RF measurements of the coated resonators, the cavities have undergone heat treatments as described above at 800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, each time followed by RF measurements. Before heat treatment, the RF response of the film was similar to that of a film coated on a copper substrate. A marked transition towards bulk-like RF behaviour was observed after the 900°C treatment. The c hanges include a sharp variation of the BCS resistance and of the sensitivity to externally applied magnetic field, quantities believed to be closely linked to the amount and nature of defects in the coating

    Possible fabrication techniques and welding specifications for the external cylinder of the CMS coil

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free aperture is 6 m in diameter. This is achieved with a 4 layer and 5 module superconducting Al- stabilized coil energized at a nominal current of 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external cylinder. The calculated stress level in the cylinder at operating conditions is particularly severe. In this paper the different possible fabrication techniques are assessed and compared and a possible welding specification for this component is given. (9 refs)
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