211 research outputs found

    Investigation of thick sheet AHSS springback in combined bending under tension

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    In this paper, we investigate the springback behavior of several advanced high-strength sheet steels (TRIP, Dual-Phase, ferrite-bainite) with thicknesses up to 4 mm. Samples were tested by means of the bending-under-tension (BUT) test. The BUT has been extensively applied, in the literature, to relatively thin (1 mm and thinner) sheet metals for automotive applications; the applicability of several guidelines from the literature was investigated in this work in the context of thick advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets and using a sample width of 12 mm. The monotonic decrease of springback as back force increased was confirmed for this category of sheet steels, and a general trend for the non-linear influence of the tool radius was observed. With the selected sample width, the effect of the secondary curvature was negligible. Conclusions and simple guidelines are drawn from the analysis with industrial sheet forming applications in mind

    Investigation of thick sheet AHSS springback in combined bending under tension

    Get PDF
    In this paper, we investigate the springback behavior of several advanced high-strength sheet steels (TRIP, Dual-Phase, ferrite-bainite) with thicknesses up to 4 mm. Samples were tested by means of the bending-under-tension (BUT) test. The BUT has been extensively applied, in the literature, to relatively thin (1 mm and thinner) sheet metals for automotive applications; the applicability of several guidelines from the literature was investigated in this work in the context of thick advanced high strength steel (AHSS) sheets and using a sample width of 12 mm. The monotonic decrease of springback as back force increased was confirmed for this category of sheet steels, and a general trend for the non-linear influence of the tool radius was observed. With the selected sample width, the effect of the secondary curvature was negligible. Conclusions and simple guidelines are drawn from the analysis with industrial sheet forming applications in mind

    Prediction of Springback After Draw‚ÄźBending Test Using Different Material Models

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    Within the framework of sheet metal forming, the importance of hardening models for springback predictions has been often emphasized. While some specific applications require very accurate models, in many common situations simpler (isotropic hardening) models may be sufficient. In these conditions, investigation of the impact of hardening models requires well defined test configurations and accurate measurements to generate the reference data. Specific draw-bend tests have been especially conceived for this purpose. In this work, such a draw-bending experimental device has been designed, for use on a biaxial tension machine. Three different steel sheets have been tested (one mild steel sheet and two HSS sheets) with thicknesses between 0.8 and 2 mm. Up to three different back-force levels were used for the tests. Wall curvatures and springback angles were measured. Finite element simulations of the tests were performed. A parameter sensitivity analysis has been carried out in order to determine the numerical parameters ensuring accurate springback results. The tests were simulated using an isotropic hardening model and a combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model. The impact of the hardening model is explored for the various test configurations and conclusions are drawn concerning their relative importance.ANR Forme

    Prediction of Springback After Draw‚ÄźBending Test Using Different Material Models

    Get PDF
    Within the framework of sheet metal forming, the importance of hardening models for springback predictions has been often emphasized. While some specific applications require very accurate models, in many common situations simpler (isotropic hardening) models may be sufficient. In these conditions, investigation of the impact of hardening models requires well defined test configurations and accurate measurements to generate the reference data. Specific draw-bend tests have been especially conceived for this purpose. In this work, such a draw-bending experimental device has been designed, for use on a biaxial tension machine. Three different steel sheets have been tested (one mild steel sheet and two HSS sheets) with thicknesses between 0.8 and 2 mm. Up to three different back-force levels were used for the tests. Wall curvatures and springback angles were measured. Finite element simulations of the tests were performed. A parameter sensitivity analysis has been carried out in order to determine the numerical parameters ensuring accurate springback results. The tests were simulated using an isotropic hardening model and a combined isotropic-kinematic hardening model. The impact of the hardening model is explored for the various test configurations and conclusions are drawn concerning their relative importance.ANR Forme

    A Fuzzy-based Decision Support Tool for Engineering Curriculum Design

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    This paper describes a decision support tool which can be used for aiding the academic sraff in making the decision of including a specialty subject in an engineering curriculum. The approach is based on building a list of competences that should be acquired through the study of the specialty subjects. An evaluation of the competences is made by means of questionnaires and finally, a fuzzy model will be run. The output of the fuzzy model reflects the need for the evaluated specialty subject to be included in the curriculum. The proposed method takes into consideration the opinions and experience of both the academic staff and the employers

    Using an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System to Estimate the Vertical Force in Single Point Incremental Forming

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    Manufacturing processes are usually complex ones, involving a significant number of parameters. Unconventional manufacturing processes, such as incremental forming is even more complex, and the establishment of some analytical relationships between parameters is difficult, largely due to the nonlinearities in the process. To overcome this drawback, artificial intelligence techniques were used to build empirical models from experimental data sets acquired from the manufacturing processes. The approach proposed in this work used an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system to extract the value of technological force on Z-axis, which appears during incremental forming, considering a set of technological parameters (diameter of the tool, feed and incremental step) as inputs. Sets of experimental data were generated and processed by means of the proposed system, to make use of the learning ability of it to extract the empirical values of the technological force from rough data

    Juxtaposing BTE and ATE ‚Äď on the role of the European insurance industry in funding civil litigation

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    One of the ways in which legal services are financed, and indeed shaped, is through private insurance arrangement. Two contrasting types of legal expenses insurance contracts (LEI) seem to dominate in Europe: before the event (BTE) and after the event (ATE) legal expenses insurance. Notwithstanding institutional differences between different legal systems, BTE and ATE insurance arrangements may be instrumental if government policy is geared towards strengthening a market-oriented system of financing access to justice for individuals and business. At the same time, emphasizing the role of a private industry as a keeper of the gates to justice raises issues of accountability and transparency, not readily reconcilable with demands of competition. Moreover, multiple actors (clients, lawyers, courts, insurers) are involved, causing behavioural dynamics which are not easily predicted or influenced. Against this background, this paper looks into BTE and ATE arrangements by analysing the particularities of BTE and ATE arrangements currently available in some European jurisdictions and by painting a picture of their respective markets and legal contexts. This allows for some reflection on the performance of BTE and ATE providers as both financiers and keepers. Two issues emerge from the analysis that are worthy of some further reflection. Firstly, there is the problematic long-term sustainability of some ATE products. Secondly, the challenges faced by policymakers that would like to nudge consumers into voluntarily taking out BTE LEI

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