2,023 research outputs found

    Using Choice to Measure the Availability and Use of E-Books

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    As e-books have come to hold a major impact on library collection building activities, the influence of reviews of titles and the on-going conversion of titles to a digital format have significant potential impacts for libraries. Reviewing tools such as Choice and the lag-time between publication notice of the print edition of a work and its corresponding e-version asks the questions, “How many of the print titles that are reviewed in Choice have a corresponding e-version ready for purchase?” and “How used are those e-versions in comparison with print?

    Trauma-Informed Practices of Mental Health Providers Around the Globe

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    This study examined trauma-informed practices of mental health professionals from 25 different countries. The literature indicates that many practitioners feel unprepared and unequipped to therapeutically work with individuals who have experienced trauma-related psychological disorders (SAMHSA, 2014). This poster highlights the deficits in trauma-informed competency among practitioners from around the globe, offers recommendations to emphasize graduate and post-graduate trauma-informed training, and also offers suggestions for future trauma competencies

    Dynamic Changes in Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Structure in Ventricular Myocytes

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    The fidelity of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling in ventricular myocytes is remarkable, with each action potential evoking a [Ca2+]i transient. The prevalent model is that the consistency in EC coupling in ventricular myocytes is due to the formation of fixed, tight junctions between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the sarcolemma where Ca2+ release is activated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the SR is a structurally inert organelle in ventricular myocytes. Our data suggest that rather than being static, the SR undergoes frequent dynamic structural changes. SR boutons expressing functional ryanodine receptors moved throughout the cell, approaching or moving away from the sarcolemma of ventricular myocytes. These changes in SR structure occurred in the absence of changes in [Ca2+]i during EC coupling. Microtubules and the molecular motors dynein and kinesin 1(Kif5b) were important regulators of SR motility. These findings support a model in which the SR is a motile organelle capable of molecular motor protein-driven structural changes

    Diminished conditioned responding to the nicotine stimulus by antidepressant drugs with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter

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    People diagnosed with depression also tend to have a co-morbid nicotine addiction. Thus, there is interest in whether medications used to treat depression alter the effects of nicotine. This study assessed whether the antidepressant drugs citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine, with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter, altered responding controlled by the conditional stimulus (CS) effects of nicotine. Rats received intermixed 20-min nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg, SC) and saline sessions. On nicotine sessions, rats had intermittent access to sucrose; no sucrose was available on saline sessions. After discrimination performance stabilized and a nicotine generalization curve (0.025–0.4 mg/kg) was established, the antidepressant drugs were assessed. In these tests, rats were pretreated with citalopram (1–17 mg/kg), imipramine (1–17 mg/ kg), or reboxetine (1–30 mg/kg) before the training dose of nicotine and placement in a chamber for a 4-min extinction test. At the higher doses, all three antidepressant drugs blocked responding evoked by the nicotine CS and decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity. When these higher doses of citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine were tested alone (no nicotine), they decreased chamber activity and/or dipper entries. Nevertheless, all three drugs produced partial or complete blockade of the CS effects of nicotine at doses that produced no effect on dipper entries or chamber entries. This finding suggests that both neurotransmitters play a role in the CS effects of nicotine and that modifications in these systems by antidepressants may be clinically relevant

    Diminished conditioned responding to the nicotine stimulus by antidepressant drugs with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter

    Get PDF
    People diagnosed with depression also tend to have a co-morbid nicotine addiction. Thus, there is interest in whether medications used to treat depression alter the effects of nicotine. This study assessed whether the antidepressant drugs citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine, with differing specificity for the serotonin and norepinephrine transporter, altered responding controlled by the conditional stimulus (CS) effects of nicotine. Rats received intermixed 20-min nicotine (0.4 mg base/kg, SC) and saline sessions. On nicotine sessions, rats had intermittent access to sucrose; no sucrose was available on saline sessions. After discrimination performance stabilized and a nicotine generalization curve (0.025–0.4 mg/kg) was established, the antidepressant drugs were assessed. In these tests, rats were pretreated with citalopram (1–17 mg/kg), imipramine (1–17 mg/ kg), or reboxetine (1–30 mg/kg) before the training dose of nicotine and placement in a chamber for a 4-min extinction test. At the higher doses, all three antidepressant drugs blocked responding evoked by the nicotine CS and decreased nicotine-induced hyperactivity. When these higher doses of citalopram, imipramine, and reboxetine were tested alone (no nicotine), they decreased chamber activity and/or dipper entries. Nevertheless, all three drugs produced partial or complete blockade of the CS effects of nicotine at doses that produced no effect on dipper entries or chamber entries. This finding suggests that both neurotransmitters play a role in the CS effects of nicotine and that modifications in these systems by antidepressants may be clinically relevant

    Spectral backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton cultures

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    The backscattering properties of marine phytoplankton, which are assumed to vary widely with differences in size, shape, morphology and internal structure, have been directly measured in the laboratory on a very limited basis. This work presents results from laboratory analysis of the backscattering properties of thirteen phytoplankton species from five major taxa. Optical measurements include portions of the volume scattering function (VSF) and the absorption and attenuation coefficients at nine wavelengths. The VSF was used to obtain the backscattering coefficient for each species, and we focus on intra- and interspecific variability in spectral backscattering in this work. Ancillary measurements included chlorophyll-a concentration, cell concentration, and cell size, shape and morphology via microscopy for each culture. We found that the spectral backscattering properties of phytoplankton deviate from theory at wavelengths where pigment absorption is significant. We were unable to detect an effect of cell size on the spectral shape of backscattering, but we did find a relationship between cell size and both the backscattering ratio and backscattering crosssection. While particulate backscattering at 555 nm was well correlated to chlorophyll-a concentration for any given species, the relationship was highly variable between species. Results from this work indicate that phytoplankton cells may backscatter light at significantly higher efficiencies than what is predicted by Mie theory, which has important implications for closing the underwater and remotely sensed light budget

    ACTH Prevents Deficits in Fear Extinction Associated with Early Life Seizures

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    Objective: Early life seizures (ELS) are often associated with cognitive and psychiatric comorbidities that are detrimental to quality of life. In a rat model of ELS, we explored long-term cognitive outcomes in adult rats. Using ACTH, an endogeneous HPA-axis hormone given to children with severe epilepsy, we sought to prevent cognitive deficits. Through comparisons with dexamethasone, we sought to dissociate the corticosteroid effects of ACTH from other potential mechanisms of action. Results: Although rats with a history of ELS were able to acquire a conditioned fear learning paradigm and controls, these rats had significant deficits in their ability to extinguish fearful memories. ACTH treatment did not alter any seizure parameters but nevertheless was able to significantly improve this fear extinction, while dexamethasone treatment during the same period did not. This ACTH effect was specific for fear extinction deficits and not for spatial learning deficits in a water maze. Additionally, ACTH did not alter seizure latency or duration suggesting that cognitive and seizure outcomes may be dissociable. Expression levels of melanocortin receptors, which bind ACTH, were found to be significantly lower in animals that had experienced ELS than in control animals, potentially implicating central melanocortin receptor dysregulation in the effects of ELS, and suggesting a mechanism of action for ACTH. Interpretation: Taken together, these data suggest that early treatment with ACTH can have significant long-term consequences for cognition in animals with a history of ELS independently of seizure cessation and may act in part through a CNS melanocortin receptor pathway
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