275 research outputs found

    The yeast integral membrane protein Apq12 potentially links membrane dynamics to assembly of nuclear pore complexes

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    Although the structure and function of components of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) have been the focus of many studies, relatively little is known about NPC biogenesis. In this study, we report that Apq12 is required for efficient NPC biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Apq12 is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope (NE) and endoplasmic reticulum. Cells lacking Apq12 are cold sensitive for growth, and a subset of their nucleoporins (Nups), those that are primarily components of the cytoplasmic fibrils of the NPC, mislocalize to the cytoplasm. APQ12 deletion also causes defects in NE morphology. In the absence of Apq12, most NPCs appear to be associated with the inner but not the outer nuclear membrane. Low levels of benzyl alcohol, which increases membrane fluidity, prevented Nup mislocalization and restored the proper localization of Nups that had accumulated in cytoplasmic foci upon a shift to lower temperature. Thus, Apq12p connects nuclear pore biogenesis to the dynamics of the NE

    Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S Induce Endocrine and Chromosomal Alterations in Brown Trout

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    Bisphenol A is a widely used compound found in large amount of consumer products. As concerns have been raised about its toxicological and public health effect, the use of alternatives to bisphenol A are now increasing. Bisphenol S is one of the analogues being used as a replacement for bisphenol A despite the fact that little is known about the effects of bisphenol S on living organisms. In this study, we investigated the potential endocrine and genotoxic effects of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta). The fish were exposed to the compounds for either 2 weeks or 8 weeks via sustained-release cholesterol implants containing doses of 2 mg/kg fish or 20 mg/kg fish of the substances. The effects on the thyroid hormone levels and the estrogenic disrupting marker vitellogenin were evaluated, along with the genotoxic markers micronucleated cells and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities. An increase in plasma vitellogenin was observed in fish exposed to the high dose of bisphenol A for 2 weeks. At this experimental time the level of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3) in plasma was elevated after bisphenol S exposure at the high concentration, and paralleled by an increase of micronucleated cells. Moreover, bisphenol A induced an increase of micronuclei frequency in fish erythrocytes after the exposure at the lowest dose tested. Taken together the results indicate that both bisphenol A and its alternative bisphenol S cause endocrine disrupting and genotoxic effects in brown trout, although suggesting two different mechanisms of damage underlying bisphenol A and bisphenol S activity

    On the Application of a Monolithic Array for Detecting Intensity-Correlated Photons Emitted by Different Source Types

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    It is not widely appreciated that many subtleties are involved in the accurate measurement of intensity-correlated photons; even for the original experiments of Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT). Using a monolithic 4x4 array of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), together with an off-chip algorithm for processing streaming data, we investigate the difficulties of measuring second-order photon correlations g2 in a wide variety of light fields that exhibit dramatically different correlation statistics: a multimode He-Ne laser, an incoherent intensity-modulated lamp-light source and a thermal light source. Our off-chip algorithm treats multiple photon-arrivals at pixel-array pairs, in any observation interval, with photon fluxes limited by detector saturation, in such a way that a correctly normalized g2 function is guaranteed. The impact of detector background correlations between SPAD pixels and afterpulsing effects on second-order coherence measurements is discussed. These results demonstrate that our monolithic SPAD array enables access to effects that are otherwise impossible to measure with stand-alone detectors.Comment: 17 pages, 6 figure

    A gene to organism approach--assessing the impact of environmental pollution in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) females and larvae

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    A broad biomarker approach was applied to study the effects of marine pollution along the Swedish west coast using the teleost eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) as the sentinel species. Measurements were performed on different biological levels, from the molecular to the organismal, including measurements of messenger RNA (mRNA), proteins, cellular and tissue changes, and reproductive success. Results revealed that eelpout captured in Stenungsund had significantly higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, high levels of both cytochrome P4501A and diablo homolog mRNA, and high prevalence of dead larvae and nuclear damage in erythrocytes. Eelpout collected in Göteborg harbor displayed extensive macrovesicular steatosis, whereby the majority of hepatocytes were affected throughout the liver, which could indicate an effect on lipid metabolism. Results also indicate that eelpouts collected at polluted sites might have an affected immune system, with lower mRNA expression of genes involved in the innate immune system and a higher number of lymphocytes. Biomarker assessment also was performed on livers dissected from unborn eelpout larvae collected from the ovary of the females. No significant differences were noted, which might indicate that the larvae to some extent are protected from effects of environmental pollutants. In conclusion, usage of the selected set of biological markers, covering responses from gene to organism, has demonstrated site-specific biomarker patterns that provided a broad and comprehensive picture of the impact of environmental stressors

    Modelling dependency networks to inform data structures in BIM and smart cities

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    The pervasive deployment of "smart city" and "smart building" projects in cities world-wide is driving innovation on many fronts including; technology, telematics, engineering and entrepreneurship. This paper focuses on the technical and engineering perspectives of BIM and smart cities, by extending building and urban morphology studies as to respond to the challenges posed by Big Data, and smart infrastructure. The proposed framework incorporates theoretical and modelling descriptions to verify how network-based models can act as the backbone skeletal representation of both building and urban complexity, and yet relate to environmental performance and smart infrastructure. The paper provides some empirical basis to support data information models through building dependency networks as to represent the relationships between different existing and smart infrastructure components. These dependency networks are thought to inform decisions on how to represent building and urban data sets in response to different social and environmental performance requirements, feeding that into void and solid descriptions of data maturity models. It is concluded that network-based models are fundamental to comprehend and represent the complexity of cities and inform urban design and public policy practices, in the design and operation phases of infrastructure projects

    Arbitrary-order lensless ghost imaging with thermal light

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    Arbitrary Nth-order (N≥2N\geq2) lensless ghost imaging with thermal light has been performed for the first time by only recording the intensities in two optical paths. It is shown that the image visibility can be dramatically enhanced as the order N increases. It is also found that longer integration times are required for higher-order correlation measurements as N increases, due to the increased fluctuations of higher-order intensity correlation functions.Comment: Updated version; some more detailed explanations provide

    Corneal Biomechanics in Ectatic Diseases: Refractive Surgery Implications.

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    BACKGROUND: Ectasia development occurs due to a chronic corneal biomechanical decompensation or weakness, resulting in stromal thinning and corneal protrusion. This leads to corneal steepening, increase in astigmatism, and irregularity. In corneal refractive surgery, the detection of mild forms of ectasia pre-operatively is essential to avoid post-operative progressive ectasia, which also depends on the impact of the procedure on the cornea. METHOD: The advent of 3D tomography is proven as a significant advancement to further characterize corneal shape beyond front surface topography, which is still relevant. While screening tests for ectasia had been limited to corneal shape (geometry) assessment, clinical biomechanical assessment has been possible since the introduction of the Ocular Response Analyzer (Reichert Ophthalmic Instruments, Buffalo, USA) in 2005 and the Corvis ST (Oculus Optikgerate GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) in 2010. Direct clinical biomechanical evaluation is recognized as paramount, especially in detection of mild ectatic cases and characterization of the susceptibility for ectasia progression for any cornea. CONCLUSIONS: The purpose of this review is to describe the current state of clinical evaluation of corneal biomechanics, focusing on the most recent advances of commercially available instruments and also on future developments, such as Brillouin microscopy.(undefined)info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    A western Sahara centre of domestication inferred from pearl millet genomes

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    There have been intense debates over the geographic origin of African crops and agriculture. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing data to infer the domestication origin of pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus). Our results supported an origin in western Sahara, and we dated the onset of cultivated pearl millet expansion in Africa to 4,900 years ago. We provided evidence that wild-to-crop gene flow increased cultivated genetic diversity leading to diversity hotspots in western and eastern Sahel and adaptive introgression of 15 genomic regions. Our study reconciled genetic and archaeological data for one of the oldest African crops
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