24 research outputs found

    Dihydropyridine receptor alpha 1 (DHPR╬▒1) localization

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-DHPR╬▒1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) in the cytoplasm and subsarcolemma of DHPR╬▒1 (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic DHPR╬▒1 IR (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ion ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) localization

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-SERCA2a antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) of SERCA2a in the cytoplasm (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic IR of SERCA2a (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with HE. Arrowheads indicate spikes and lakes in cytoplasm (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    TemperatureÔÇôamplitude coupling for stable biological rhythms at different temperatures

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    <div><p>Most biological processes accelerate with temperature, for example cell division. In contrast, the circadian rhythm period is robust to temperature fluctuation, termed temperature compensation. Temperature compensation is peculiar because a system-level property (i.e., the circadian period) is stable under varying temperature while individual components of the system (i.e., biochemical reactions) are usually temperature-sensitive. To understand the mechanism for period stability, we measured the time series of circadian clock transcripts in cultured C6 glioma cells. The amplitudes of <i>Cry1</i> and <i>Dbp</i> circadian expression increased significantly with temperature. In contrast, other clock transcripts demonstrated no significant change in amplitude. To understand these experimental results, we analyzed mathematical models with different network topologies. It was found that the geometric mean amplitude of gene expression must increase to maintain a stable period with increasing temperatures and reaction speeds for all models studied. To investigate the generality of this temperatureÔÇôamplitude coupling mechanism for period stability, we revisited data on the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC) period, which is also stable under temperature variation. We confirmed that the YMC amplitude increased at higher temperatures, suggesting temperature-amplitude coupling as a common mechanism shared by circadian and 4 h-metabolic rhythms.</p></div

    Myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase) staining

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with mATPase (pH10.7). Lightly and darkly stained muscle fibers were classified as type I and type II muscle fibers, respectively. Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ion ATPase 1 (SERCA1) localization

    No full text
    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-SERCA1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) of SERCA1 in the cytoplasm (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic IR of SERCA1 (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) localization

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with anti-RyR1 antibody. Asterisks indicate normal immunoreactivity (IR) in the cytoplasm and subsarcolemma of RyR1 (a-d, i-p). Arrows indicate muscle fiber with ectopic RyR1 IR (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p

    Modified GomoriÔÇÖs trichrome staining

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    Cross-sections of the gastrocnemius (a-h) and soleus (i-p) muscles were stained with modified GomoriÔÇÖs trichrome. Arrowheads indicate red materials in cytoplasm (e-h). Scale bar = 50 ╬╝m. GAS, gastrocnemius muscle; SOL, soleus muscle; 3M, 3-month-old mice; 24M, 24-month-old mice.</p
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