8 research outputs found

    Gate-capacitance extraction from RF C-V measurements

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    In this work, a full two-port analysis of an RF C-V measurement set-up is given. This two-port analysis gives insight on the limitations of the commonly used gate capacitance extraction, based on the Y/sub 11/ parameter of the device. It is shown that the parasitics of the device can disturb the extracted gate capacitance and a new extraction scheme, based on the Z-matrix, is introduced that eliminates the effect of these parasitics. Measurement results prove the validity of this new extraction scheme, under different conditions

    Interface trap response to RF charge pumping measurements

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    In this paper we will discuss the interface trap response to CP measurements at RF gate excitation. An explanation is given on how to accurately perform RF CP measurements, using an improved technique. Based on the observed response of the pumped charge per cycle with increasing frequencies a model is developed that is able to explain the observed roll-off. It is an extension to the well known classical model and it takes into account both the limited capture rates as well as a distribution of traps in the oxide

    Record RF performance of standard 90 nm CMOS technology

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    We have optimized 3 key RF devices realized in standard logic 90 nm CMOS technology and report a record performance in terms of n-MOS maximum oscillation frequency f/sub max/ (280 GHz), varactor tuning range and varactor and inductor quality factor

    Reliability engineering in RF CMOS

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    In this thesis new developments are presented for reliability engineering in RF CMOS. Given the increase in use of CMOS technology in applications for mobile communication, also the reliability of CMOS for such applications becomes increasingly important. When applied in these applications, CMOS is typically referred to as RF CMOS, where RF stands for radio frequencies

    Charge Pumping at radio Frequencies: Methodology, Trap Response and Application

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    The charge pumping (CP) technique is known for its high accuracy of determining the interface state density on MOS devices [1]. With reducing oxide thickness, the tunneling current can dramatically disturb the accuracy of the obtained CP results [2]. In this paper we discuss the applicability of the RF CP technique for extracting the interface state density on these dielectrics. We present an improved measurement approach, new data, and an improved model for the description of the RF CP response of fast interface states

    The RF charge pump technique for measuring the interface state density on leaky dielectrics

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    In this work the RF charge pump technique is presented. It is shown that this technique can rovide charge pump data of devices that have a leakage current too high for classical charge pump measurements. The methodology of accurately performing RF charge pump measurements is discussed and measurement results on devices with both a very high leakage current and moderate leakage current are shown. Charge pump data obtained at frequencies of up to 2 GHz are shown. It is verified that the RF charge pump data can indeed be used for extracting the interface state density and it is also investigated how this extraction can be performed accurately


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    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are endogenous plant hormones essential for the proper regulation of multiple physiological processes required for normal plant growth and development. Since their discovery more than 30 years ago, extensive research on the mechanisms of BR action using biochemistry, mutant studies, proteomics and genome-wide transcriptome analyses, has helped refine the BR biosynthetic pathway, identify the basic molecular components required to relay the BR signal from perception to gene regulation, and expand the known physiological responses influenced by BRs. These mechanistic advances have helped answer the intriguing question of how BRs can have such dramatic pleiotropic effects on a broad range of diverse developmental pathways and have further pointed to BR interactions with other plant hormones and environmental cues. This chapter briefly reviews historical aspects of BR research and then summarizes the current state of knowledge on BR biosynthesis, metabolism and signal transduction. Recent studies uncovering novel phosphorelays and gene regulatory networks through which BR influences both vegetative and reproductive development are examined and placed in the context of known BR physiological responses including cell elongation and division, vascular differentiation, flowering, pollen development and photomorphogenesis