24 research outputs found

    Validación de Modelos de Tráfico sobre Enrutadores con QoS

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    Los modelos de tr√°fico aplicados a redes son importantes a la hora de desarrollar e implementar dispositivos o sistemas de red para una determinada aplicaci√≥n y realizar la medici√≥n del desempe√Īo de los mismos, comparando el comportamiento real con el predicho por los modelos te√≥ricos. Este trabajo consiste en la implementaci√≥n de una topolog√≠a de red, configurando diferentes escenarios que corresponden a distintos modelos de tr√°fico, para una posterior medici√≥n del desempe√Īo en base al retardo compar√°ndolo con su modelo asociado. Para evitar la sincronizaci√≥n de los terminales se propone un algoritmo que permite medir el retardo bajo ciertas condiciones de trabajo.Sociedad Argentina de Inform√°tica e Investigaci√≥n Operativ

    Measurement of the cosmic ray spectrum above 4√ó10184{\times}10^{18} eV using inclined events detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    A measurement of the cosmic-ray spectrum for energies exceeding 4√ó10184{\times}10^{18} eV is presented, which is based on the analysis of showers with zenith angles greater than 60‚ąė60^{\circ} detected with the Pierre Auger Observatory between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2013. The measured spectrum confirms a flux suppression at the highest energies. Above 5.3√ó10185.3{\times}10^{18} eV, the "ankle", the flux can be described by a power law E‚ąíő≥E^{-\gamma} with index ő≥=2.70¬Ī0.02‚ÄČ(stat)¬Ī0.1‚ÄČ(sys)\gamma=2.70 \pm 0.02 \,\text{(stat)} \pm 0.1\,\text{(sys)} followed by a smooth suppression region. For the energy (EsE_\text{s}) at which the spectral flux has fallen to one-half of its extrapolated value in the absence of suppression, we find Es=(5.12¬Ī0.25‚ÄČ(stat)‚ąí1.2+1.0‚ÄČ(sys))√ó1019E_\text{s}=(5.12\pm0.25\,\text{(stat)}^{+1.0}_{-1.2}\,\text{(sys)}){\times}10^{19} eV.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is part of the Pierre Auger Observatory and is used to detect the radio emission of cosmic-ray air showers. These observations are compared to the data of the surface detector stations of the Observatory, which provide well-calibrated information on the cosmic-ray energies and arrival directions. The response of the radio stations in the 30 to 80 MHz regime has been thoroughly calibrated to enable the reconstruction of the incoming electric field. For the latter, the energy deposit per area is determined from the radio pulses at each observer position and is interpolated using a two-dimensional function that takes into account signal asymmetries due to interference between the geomagnetic and charge-excess emission components. The spatial integral over the signal distribution gives a direct measurement of the energy transferred from the primary cosmic ray into radio emission in the AERA frequency range. We measure 15.8 MeV of radiation energy for a 1 EeV air shower arriving perpendicularly to the geomagnetic field. This radiation energy -- corrected for geometrical effects -- is used as a cosmic-ray energy estimator. Performing an absolute energy calibration against the surface-detector information, we observe that this radio-energy estimator scales quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy as expected for coherent emission. We find an energy resolution of the radio reconstruction of 22% for the data set and 17% for a high-quality subset containing only events with at least five radio stations with signal.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DO

    Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy

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    We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 \pm 0.7 (stat) \pm 6.7 (sys) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principle calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascade of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DOI. Supplemental material in the ancillary file

    Käytännön kosteikkosuunnittelu

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    Maatalouden vesiensuojelua edistetään monin tavoin. Ravinteita ja eroosioainesta sisältäviä valumavesiä pyritään puhdistamaan erilaisissa kosteikoissa. Tämä opas on kirjoitettu avuksi pienimuotoisten kosteikkojen perustamiseen. Oppaassa esitetään käytännönläheisesti kosteikon toteuttamisen eri vaiheet paikan valinnasta suunnitteluun ja rakentamiseen. Vuonna 2010 julkaistun painoksen tiedot on saatettu ajantasalle. Julkaisu on toteutettu osana Tehoa maatalouden vesiensuojeluun (TEHO) -hanketta ja päivitetty TEHO Plus -hankkeen toimesta. Oppaan toivotaan lisäävän kiinnostusta kosteikkojen suunnitteluun ja edelleen niiden rakentamiseen

    Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

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    Prototype muon detectors for the AMIGA component of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Energy Estimation of Cosmic Rays with the Engineering Radio Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The Pierre Auger Observatory Upgrade - Preliminary Design Report

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