754 research outputs found

    The 12CO/13CO ratio in AGB stars of different chemical type-Connection to the 12C/13C ratio and the evolution along the AGB

    Full text link
    The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolution of the 12C/13C ratio along the AGB through the circumstellar 12CO/13CO ratio. This is the first time a sample including a significant number of M- and S-type stars is analysed together with a carbon-star sample of equal size, making it possible to investigate trends among the different types and establish evolutionary effects. The circumstellar 12CO/13CO abundance ratios are estimated through a detailed radiative transfer analysis of single-dish radio line emission observations. First, the 12CO radiative transfer is solved, assuming an abundance (dependent on the chemical type of the star), to give the physical parameters of the gas, i.e. mass-loss rate, gas expansion velocity, and gas temperature distribution. Then, the 13CO radiative transfer is solved using the results of the 12CO model giving the 13CO abundance. Finally, the 12CO/13CO abundance ratio is calculated. The circumstellar 12CO/13CO abundance ratio differs between the three spectral types. This is consistent with what is expected from stellar evolutionary models assuming that the spectral types constitute an evolutionary sequence; however, this is the first time this has been shown observationally for a relatively large sample covering all three spectral types. The median value of the 13CO abundance in the inner circumstellar envelope is 1.6x10^-5, 2.3x10^-5, and 3.0x10^-5 for the M-type, S-type, and carbon stars of the sample, respectively, corresponding to 12CO/13CO abundance ratios of 13, 26, and 34, respectively. Interestingly, the abundance ratio spread of the carbon stars is much larger than for the M- and S-type stars, even when excluding J-type carbon stars, in line with what could be expected from evolution on the AGB. We find no correlation between the isotopologue ratio and the mass-loss rate, as would be expected if both increase as the star evolves.Comment: 11 pages, 5 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    The physics and chemistry of circumstellar envelopes of S-stars on the AGB

    Full text link
    The S-stars have been suggested to be a brief transitional phase as stars evolve from oxygen-rich M-type stars into carbon stars, through the dredge up of carbon from He-shell burning. As possible transition objects, S-stars might help achieve a deeper understanding of the chemical evolution as a star ascends the AGB, as well as shed more light on the mass-loss mechanism. We have initiated a large survey of 40 S-stars to observe line emission in common molecules such as CO, SiO, HCN, CS and SiS. Detailed radiative transfer modelling of multi-transition CO radio line observations towards a sample of 40 S-stars shows that the mass-loss rate distribution of S-stars is consistent with those found for M-type AGB stars and carbon stars. Initial results from modelling of the circumstellar SiO emission are also presented.Comment: 2 pages, 1 figure, to appear in Proceedings from 'Why Galaxies Care About AGB stars

    The mass-loss rates and molecular abundances of S-type AGB stars

    Full text link
    The S-type stars are believed to have a C/O-ratio close to unity (within a few percent). They are considered to represent an intermediate evolutionary stage as AGB stars evolve from oxygen-rich M-type stars into carbon stars. As possible transition objects the S-type stars could give important clues to the mass-loss mechanism(s) and to the chemical evolution along the AGB. Using observations of circumstellar radio line emission in combination with a detailed radiative transfer analysis, we have estimated mass-loss rates and abundances of chemically important molecules (SiO, HCN) for a sample of 40 S-type AGB stars. The results will be compared to previous results for M-type and carbon stars.Comment: To appear in the proceedings of Why Galaxies Care About AGB stars I

    ALMA observations of the vibrationally-excited rotational CO transition v=1,J=32v=1, J=3-2 towards five AGB stars

    Get PDF
    We report the serendipitous detection with ALMA of the vibrationally-excited pure-rotational CO transition v=1,J=32v=1, J=3-2 towards five asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, oo Cet, R Aqr, R Scl, W Aql, and π1\pi^1 Gru. The observed lines are formed in the poorly-understood region located between the stellar surface and the region where the wind starts, the so-called warm molecular layer. We successfully reproduce the observed lines profiles using a simple model. We constrain the extents, densities, and kinematics of the region where the lines are produced. R Aqr and R Scl show inverse P-Cygni line profiles which indicate infall of material onto the stars. The line profiles of oo Cet and R Scl show variability. The serendipitous detection towards these five sources shows that vibrationally-excited rotational lines can be observed towards a large number of nearby AGB stars using ALMA. This opens a new possibility for the study of the innermost regions of AGB circumstellar envelopes.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figures, 2 tables, 2016MNRAS.463L..74

    The abundance of HCN in circumstellar envelopes of AGB stars of different chemical types

    Full text link
    A multi-transition survey of HCN (sub-) millimeter line emission from a large sample of AGB stars of different chemical type is presented. The data are analysed and circumstellar HCN abundances are estimated. The sample stars span a large range of properties such as mass-loss rate and photospheric C/O-ratio. The analysis of the new data allows for more accurate estimates of the circumstellar HCN abundances and puts new constraints on chemical models. In order to constrain the circumstellar HCN abundance distribution a detailed non-LTE excitation analysis, based on the Monte Carlo method, is performed. Effects of line overlaps and radiative excitation from dust grains are included. The median values for the derived abundances of HCN (with respect to H2) are 3x10-5, 7x10-7 and 10-7 for carbon stars (25 stars), S-type AGB stars (19 stars) and M-type AGB stars (25 stars), respectively. The estimated sizes of the HCN envelopes are similar to those obtained in the case of SiO for the same sample of sources and agree well with previous results from interferometric observations, when these are available. We find that there is a clear dependence of the derived circumstellar HCN abundance on the C/O-ratio of the star, in that carbon stars have about two orders of magnitude higher abundances than M-type AGB stars, on average. The derived HCN abundances of the S-type AGB stars have a larger spread and typically fall in between those of the two other types, however, slightly closer to the values for the M-type AGB stars. For the M-type stars, the estimated abundances are much higher than what would be expected if HCN is formed in thermal equilibrium. However, the results are also in contrast to predictions from recent non-LTE chemical models, where very little difference is expected in the HCN abundances between the various types of AGB stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    Detailed modelling of the circumstellar molecular line emission of the S-type AGB star W Aquilae

    Get PDF
    S-type AGB stars have a C/O ratio which suggests that they are transition objects between oxygen-rich M-type stars and carbon-rich C-type stars. As such, their circumstellar compositions of gas and dust are thought to be sensitive to their precise C/O ratio, and it is therefore of particular interest to examine their circumstellar properties. We present new Herschel HIFI and PACS sub-millimetre and far-infrared line observations of several molecular species towards the S-type AGB star W Aql. We use these observations, which probe a wide range of gas temperatures, to constrain the circumstellar properties of W Aql, including mass-loss rate and molecular abundances. We used radiative transfer codes to model the circumstellar dust and molecular line emission to determine circumstellar properties and molecular abundances. We assumed a spherically symmetric envelope formed by a constant mass-loss rate driven by an accelerating wind. Our model includes fully integrated H2O line cooling as part of the solution of the energy balance. We detect circumstellar molecular lines from CO, H2O, SiO, HCN, and, for the first time in an S-type AGB star, NH3. The radiative transfer calculations result in an estimated mass-loss rate for W Aql of 4.0e-6 Msol yr-1 based on the 12CO lines. The estimated 12CO/13CO ratio is 29, which is in line with ratios previously derived for S-type AGB stars. We find an H2O abundance of 1.5e-5, which is intermediate to the abundances expected for M and C stars, and an ortho/para ratio for H2O that is consistent with formation at warm temperatures. We find an HCN abundance of 3e-6, and, although no CN lines are detected using HIFI, we are able to put some constraints on the abundance, 6e-6, and distribution of CN in W Aql's circumstellar envelope using ground-based data. We find an SiO abundance of 3e-6, and an NH3 abundance of 1.7e-5, confined to a small envelope.Comment: 17 pages, 15 figure

    CO and HCN isotopologue ratios in the outflows of AGB stars

    Full text link
    Isotopologue line intensity ratios of circumstellar molecules have been widely used to trace the photospheric elemental isotopic ratios of evolved stars. However, depending on the molecular species and the physical conditions of the environment, the circumstellar isotopologue ratio may deviate considerably from the stellar atmospheric value. In this paper, we aim to examine how the CO and HCN abundance ratios vary radially due to chemical reactions in the outflows of AGB stars and the effect of excitation and optical depth on the resulting line intensity ratios. We find that the circumstellar 12CO/13CO can deviate from its atmospheric value by up to 25-94% and 6-60% for C- and O-type CSEs, respectively. We show that variations of the intensity of the ISRF and the gas kinetic temperature can significantly influence the CO isotopologue ratio in the outer CSEs. On the contrary, the H12CN/H13CN ratio is stable for all tested mass-loss rates. The RT modeling shows that the integrated line intensity ratio of CO of different rotational transitions varies significantly for stars with intermediate mass-loss rates due to combined chemical and excitation effects. In contrast, the excitation conditions for the both HCN isotopologues are the same. We demonstrate the importance of using the isotopologue abundance profiles from chemical models as inputs to RT models in the interpretation of isotopologue observations. Previous studies of CO isotopologue ratios are based on multi-transition data for individual sources and it is difficult to estimate the errors in the reported values due to assumptions that are not entirely correct according to this study. If anything, previous studies may have overestimated the circumstellar 12CO/13CO abundance ratio. The use of the HCN as a tracer of C isotope ratios is affected by fewer complicating problems, provided one accounts corrections for high optical depths.Comment: 14 pages, 11 figure
    corecore