182 research outputs found

    PILS: Low-Cost Water-Level Monitoring

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    Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Lower Pecos Rock Paints and Possible Pigment Sources

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    Chemical analyses of prehistoric rock paints from the Lower Pecos Region of southwestern Texas were undertaken using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. This technique allowed us to measure the chemical composition of the paint pigments with minimal interference from a natural rock coating that completely covers the ancient paints. We also analyzed samples representing potential sources of paint pigments, including iron-rich sandstones and quartzite from the study area and ten ochre samples from Arizona. Cluster analysis, principle component analysis and bivariate plots were used to compare the chemical compositions of the paint and pigment sources. The results indicate that limonite extracted from the sandstone was the most likely source for some of the pigments, while ochre was probably used as well

    A paleoclimate reconstruction for southwestern Texas using oxalate residue from lichen as a paleoclimate proxy.

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    Abstract A calcium oxalate rock coating is ubiquitous on limestone surfaces inside dry rock shelters and under rock overhangs within the canyons of the southwestern Edwards Plateau in southwestern Texas. The oxalate was likely produced by epilithic lichens that #ourished in these niches during dry climate regimes. During wet climate conditions the productivity of the lichen would be severely reduced due to physiological response to moisture regime. Thus, lichen productivity and the production of calcium oxalate may have changed through time in response to wet}dry climate #uctuations. Twenty-"ve AMS radiocarbon ages of rock crust samples collected from 14 sites demonstrate that oxalate was produced episodically during the middle and late Holocene. The occurrence of oxalate is correlated with periods of dry climate, whereas gaps in the record of oxalate deposition coincide with more mesic climate intervals. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for obtaining paleoclimate data from biogenic residues on rock surfaces

    Profiles of children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour between age 6 and 9:a latent profile and transition analysis

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    Abstract Background Physical activity is associated with improved physical and mental health among children. However, physical activity declines and sedentary time increases with age, and large proportions of older children do not meet the recommended hour per day of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The aim of this paper is to identify profiles of children based on the complex relationship between physical activity and sedentary time at ages 6 and 9 and explore how those profiles are associated with other covariates and how they change over time. Methods Valid accelerometer data were collected for 1132 children aged 6 and 1121 at age 9, with 565 children with data at both ages. We calculated the proportions of total wear time spent in sedentary, light and MVPA activity on both weekdays and weekends. Latent profile (class) analysis was applied separately to the two age groups to identify activity profiles. We then used latent transition analysis to explore transitions between profiles at the two time points. Results We identified five profiles of activity at age 6 and six profiles at age 9. Although profiles were not directly equivalent, five classes captured similar patterns at both ages and ranged from very active to inactive. At both ages, active profiles, where the majority achieved the recommended MVPA guidelines, were more likely to be active at weekends than on weekdays. There was substantial movement between classes, with strongest patterns of movement to classes with no change or a decrease in MVPA. Transition between classes was associated with sex, BMI z-score, screen-viewing and participation in out-of-school activities. Conclusions This paper is the first to apply latent profile analysis to the physical activity of UK children as they move through primary school. Profiles were identified at ages 6 and 9, reflecting different weekday and weekend patterns of physical activity and sedentary time. There was substantial movement between profiles between ages 6 and 9, mostly to no change or less active profiles. Weekend differences suggest that greater focus on how weekend activity contributes to an average of 60 min per day of MVPA across the week may be warranted

    Planetary Transits of the Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey- Candidate TrES-1b

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    The AAVSO compiled 10,560 CCD observations of the suspected exoplanet transit object TrES-1b covering seven complete transit windows, three windows of partial coverage, and coverage of baseline non-transit periods. Visual inspection of the light curves reveals the presence of slight humps at the egress points of some transits. A boot strap Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the data to confirm that the humps exist to a statistically significant degree. However, it does not rule out systemic effects which will be tested with campaigns in the 2005 observing season

    Baseline microglial activation correlates with brain amyloidosis and longitudinal cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aims to quantify microglial activation in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) using the 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO) PET imaging in the hippocampus and precuneus, the 2 AD-vulnerable regions, and to evaluate the association of baseline neuroinflammation with amyloidosis, tau, and longitudinal cognitive decline. METHODS: Twenty-four participants from the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (Knight ADRC) were enrolled and classified into stable cognitively normal, progressor, and symptomatic AD groups based on clinical dementia rating (CDR) at 2 or more clinical assessments. The baseline TSPO radiotracer [11C]PK11195 was used to image microglial activation. Baseline CSF concentrations of Aβ42, Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio, tau phosphorylated at position 181 (p-tau181), and total tau (t-tau) were measured. Clinical and cognitive decline were examined with longitudinal CDR and cognitive composite scores (Global and Knight ADRC-Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite [Knight ADRC-PACC] Score). RESULTS: Participants in the progressor and symptomatic AD groups had significantly elevated [11C]PK11195 standard uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in the hippocampus but not in the precuneus region. In the subcohort with CSF biomarkers (16 of the 24), significant negative correlations between CSF Aβ42 or Aβ42/Aβ40 and [11C]PK11195 SUVR were observed in the hippocampus and precuneus. No correlations were observed between [11C]PK11195 SUVR and CSF p-tau181 or t-tau at baseline in those regions. Higher baseline [11C]PK11195 SUVR averaged in the whole cortical regions predicted longitudinal decline on cognitive tests. DISCUSSION: Microglial activation is increased in individuals with brain amyloidosis and predicts worsening cognition in AD. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with AD, higher baseline [11C]PK11195 SUVR averaged in the whole cortical regions was associated with longitudinal decline on cognitive tests
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