51,339 research outputs found

### Lectures on Duflo isomorphisms in Lie algebra and complex geometry

International audienceDuflo isomorphism first appeared in Lie theory and representation theory. It is an isomorphism between invariant polynomials of a Lie algebra and the center of its universal enveloping algebra, generalizing the pioneering work of Harish-Chandra on semi-simple Lie algebras. Later on, Dufloâs result was refound by Kontsevich in the framework of deformation quantization, who also observed that there is a similar isomorphism between Dolbeault cohomology of holomorphic polyvector fields on a complex manifold and its Hochschild cohomology. The present book, which arose from a series of lectures by the first author at ETH, derives these two isomorphisms from a Duflo-type result for Q-manifolds.All notions mentioned above are introduced and explained in the book, the only prerequisites being basic linear algebra and differential geometry. In addition to standard notions such as Lie (super)algebras, complex manifolds, Hochschild and ChevalleyâEilenberg cohomologies, spectral sequences, Atiyah and Todd classes, the graphical calculus introduced by Kontsevich in his seminal work on deformation quantization is addressed in details.The book is well-suited for graduate students in mathematics and mathematical physics as well as for researchers working in Lie theory, algebraic geometry and deformation theory

### Games for eigenvalues of the Hessian and concave/convex envelopes

We study the PDE $\lambda_j(D^2 u) = 0$, in $\Omega$, with $u=g$, on
$\partial \Omega$. Here $\lambda_1(D^2 u) \leq ... \leq \lambda_N (D^2 u)$ are
the ordered eigenvalues of the Hessian $D^2 u$. First, we show a geometric
interpretation of the viscosity solutions to the problem in terms of
convex/concave envelopes over affine spaces of dimension $j$. In one of our
main results, we give necessary and sufficient conditions on the domain so that
the problem has a continuous solution for every continuous datum $g$. Next, we
introduce a two-player zero-sum game whose values approximate solutions to this
PDE problem. In addition, we show an asymptotic mean value characterization for
the solution the the PDE

### Evidences Behind Skype Outage

Skype is one of the most successful VoIP application in the current Internet spectrum. One of the most peculiar characteristics of Skype is that it relies on a P2P infrastructure for the exchange of signaling information amongst active peers. During August 2007, an unexpected outage hit the Skype overlay, yielding to a service blackout that lasted for more than two days: this paper aims at throwing light to this event. Leveraging on the use of an accurate Skype classification engine, we carry on an experimental study of Skype signaling during the outage. In particular, we focus on the signaling traffic before, during and after the outage, in the attempt to quantify interesting properties of the event. While it is very difficult to gather clear insights concerning the root causes of the breakdown itself, the collected measurement allow nevertheless to quantify several interesting aspects of the outage: for instance, measurements show that the outage caused, on average, a 3-fold increase of signaling traffic and a 10-fold increase of number of contacted peers, topping to more than 11 million connections for the most active node in our network - which immediately gives the feeling of the extent of the phenomeno

### The evolution problem associated with eigenvalues of the Hessian

In this paper we study the evolution problem $\left\lbrace\begin{array}{ll}
u_t (x,t)- \lambda_j(D^2 u(x,t)) = 0, & \text{in } \Omega\times (0,+\infty), \\
u(x,t) = g(x,t), & \text{on } \partial \Omega \times (0,+\infty), \\ u(x,0) =
u_0(x), & \text{in } \Omega, \end{array}\right.$ where $\Omega$ is a bounded
domain in $\mathbb{R}^N$ (that verifies a suitable geometric condition on its
boundary) and $\lambda_j(D^2 u)$ stands for the $j-$st eigenvalue of the
Hessian matrix $D^2u$. We assume that $u_0$ and $g$ are continuous functions
with the compatibility condition $u_0(x) = g(x,0)$, $x\in \partial \Omega$.
We show that the (unique) solution to this problem exists in the viscosity
sense and can be approximated by the value function of a two-player zero-sum
game as the parameter measuring the size of the step that we move in each round
of the game goes to zero.
In addition, when the boundary datum is independent of time, $g(x,t) =g(x)$,
we show that viscosity solutions to this evolution problem stabilize and
converge exponentially fast to the unique stationary solution as $t\to \infty$.
For $j=1$ the limit profile is just the convex envelope inside $\Omega$ of the
boundary datum $g$, while for $j=N$ it is the concave envelope. We obtain this
result with two different techniques: with PDE tools and and with game
theoretical arguments. Moreover, in some special cases (for affine boundary
data) we can show that solutions coincide with the stationary solution in
finite time (that depends only on $\Omega$ and not on the initial condition
$u_0$)

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