2,531 research outputs found

    Ex. 279-US-405

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    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Ex. 281-US-403

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    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Ex. 281-US-403

    Get PDF
    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Ex. 279-US-405

    Get PDF
    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Ex. 277-US-403

    Get PDF
    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Ex. 277-US-403

    Get PDF
    Report: The Relative Merits of the Modified Sag-Tape Method for Determining Instream Flow Requirement

    Asymmetric Cyclopropanation of Styrene Catalyzed by Chiral Macrocyclic Iron(II) Complexes

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    Three chiral tetraaza macrocyclic ligands (4a−c) were synthesized by the cyclization reaction of diamines with dithioaldehydes. The iron(II) complexes of ligands 4a and 4c, as well as two chiral iron(II) porphyrin complexes, FeII(D4-TpAP) and Fe(α2β2-BNP), are efficient catalysts for the cyclopropanation of styrene with diazoacetate reagents. The cyclopropyl esters were produced with high diastereoselectivities and good yields. However, the enantioselectivities were modest at best. The rationalization of the stereoselectivity in these cyclopropanation reactions is presented. The results of a single-crystal X-ray analysis of the ligand 4a are also reported

    Headloop suppression PCR and its application to selective amplification of methylated DNA sequences

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    Selective amplification in PCR is principally determined by the sequence of the primers and the temperature of the annealing step. We have developed a new PCR technique for distinguishing related sequences in which additional selectivity is dependent on sequences within the amplicon. A 5′ extension is included in one (or both) primer(s) that corresponds to sequences within one of the related amplicons. After copying and incorporation into the PCR product this sequence is then able to loop back, anneal to the internal sequences and prime to form a hairpin structure—this structure is then refractory to further amplification. Thus, amplification of sequences containing a perfect match to the 5′ extension is suppressed while amplification of sequences containing mismatches or lacking the sequence is unaffected. We have applied Headloop PCR to DNA that had been bisulphite-treated for the selective amplification of methylated sequences of the human GSTP1 gene in the presence of up to a 10(5)-fold excess of unmethylated sequences. Headloop PCR has a potential for clinical application in the detection of differently methylated DNAs following bisulphite treatment as well as for selective amplification of sequence variants or mutants in the presence of an excess of closely related DNA sequences

    Characterisation of the Cullin-3 mutation that causes a severe form of familial hypertension and hyperkalaemia

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    Deletion of exon 9 from Cullin‐3 (CUL3, residues 403–459: CUL3Δ403–459) causes pseudohypoaldosteronism type IIE (PHA2E), a severe form of familial hyperkalaemia and hypertension (FHHt). CUL3 binds the RING protein RBX1 and various substrate adaptors to form Cullin‐RING‐ubiquitin‐ligase complexes. Bound to KLHL3, CUL3‐RBX1 ubiquitylates WNK kinases, promoting their ubiquitin‐mediated proteasomal degradation. Since WNK kinases activate Na/Cl co‐transporters to promote salt retention, CUL3 regulates blood pressure. Mutations in both KLHL3 and WNK kinases cause PHA2 by disrupting Cullin‐RING‐ligase formation. We report here that the PHA2E mutant, CUL3Δ403–459, is severely compromised in its ability to ubiquitylate WNKs, possibly due to altered structural flexibility. Instead, CUL3Δ403–459 auto‐ubiquitylates and loses interaction with two important Cullin regulators: the COP9‐signalosome and CAND1. A novel knock‐in mouse model of CUL3WT/Δ403–459 closely recapitulates the human PHA2E phenotype. These mice also show changes in the arterial pulse waveform, suggesting a vascular contribution to their hypertension not reported in previous FHHt models. These findings may explain the severity of the FHHt phenotype caused by CUL3 mutations compared to those reported in KLHL3 or WNK kinases

    Benefit-Cost Analysis of FEMA Hazard Mitigation Grants

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    Mitigation ameliorates the impact of natural hazards on communities by reducing loss of life and injury, property and environmental damage, and social and economic disruption. The potential to reduce these losses brings many benefits, but every mitigation activity has a cost that must be considered in our world of limited resources. In principle benefit-cost analysis (BCA) can be used to assess a mitigation activity’s expected net benefits (discounted future benefits less discounted costs), but in practice this often proves difficult. This paper reports on a study that refined BCA methodologies and applied them to a national statistical sample of FEMA mitigation activities over a ten-year period for earthquake, flood, and wind hazards. The results indicate that the overall benefit-cost ratio for FEMA mitigation grants is about 4 to 1, though the ratio varies according to hazard and mitigation type.
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