119 research outputs found

### Recognition by Prototypes

A scheme for recognizing 3D objects from single 2D images is introduced. The scheme proceeds in two stages. In the first stage, the categorization stage, the image is compared to prototype objects. For each prototype, the view that most resembles the image is recovered, and, if the view is found to be similar to the image, the class identity of the object is determined. In the second stage, the identification stage, the observed object is compared to the individual models of its class, where classes are expected to contain objects with relatively similar shapes. For each model, a view that matches the image is sought. If such a view is found, the object's specific identity is determined. The advantage of categorizing the object before it is identified is twofold. First, the image is compared to a smaller number of models, since only models that belong to the object's class need to be considered. Second, the cost of comparing the image to each model in a classis very low, because correspondence is computed once for the whoel class. More specifically, the correspondence and object pose computed in the categorization stage to align the prototype with the image are reused in the identification stage to align the individual models with the image. As a result, identification is reduced to a series fo simple template comparisons. The paper concludes with an algorithm for constructing optimal prototypes for classes of objects

### Stable Camera Motion Estimation Using Convex Programming

We study the inverse problem of estimating n locations $t_1, ..., t_n$ (up to
global scale, translation and negation) in $R^d$ from noisy measurements of a
subset of the (unsigned) pairwise lines that connect them, that is, from noisy
measurements of $\pm (t_i - t_j)/\|t_i - t_j\|$ for some pairs (i,j) (where the
signs are unknown). This problem is at the core of the structure from motion
(SfM) problem in computer vision, where the $t_i$'s represent camera locations
in $R^3$. The noiseless version of the problem, with exact line measurements,
has been considered previously under the general title of parallel rigidity
theory, mainly in order to characterize the conditions for unique realization
of locations. For noisy pairwise line measurements, current methods tend to
produce spurious solutions that are clustered around a few locations. This
sensitivity of the location estimates is a well-known problem in SfM,
especially for large, irregular collections of images.
In this paper we introduce a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation,
specially tailored to overcome the clustering phenomenon. We further identify
the implications of parallel rigidity theory for the location estimation
problem to be well-posed, and prove exact (in the noiseless case) and stable
location recovery results. We also formulate an alternating direction method to
solve the resulting semidefinite program, and provide a distributed version of
our formulation for large numbers of locations. Specifically for the camera
location estimation problem, we formulate a pairwise line estimation method
based on robust camera orientation and subspace estimation. Lastly, we
demonstrate the utility of our algorithm through experiments on real images.Comment: 40 pages, 12 figures, 6 tables; notation and some unclear parts
updated, some typos correcte

### A Global Approach for Solving Edge-Matching Puzzles

We consider apictorial edge-matching puzzles, in which the goal is to arrange
a collection of puzzle pieces with colored edges so that the colors match along
the edges of adjacent pieces. We devise an algebraic representation for this
problem and provide conditions under which it exactly characterizes a puzzle.
Using the new representation, we recast the combinatorial, discrete problem of
solving puzzles as a global, polynomial system of equations with continuous
variables. We further propose new algorithms for generating approximate
solutions to the continuous problem by solving a sequence of convex
relaxations

### Identification of Structured LTI MIMO State-Space Models

The identification of structured state-space model has been intensively
studied for a long time but still has not been adequately addressed. The main
challenge is that the involved estimation problem is a non-convex (or bilinear)
optimization problem. This paper is devoted to developing an identification
method which aims to find the global optimal solution under mild computational
burden. Key to the developed identification algorithm is to transform a
bilinear estimation to a rank constrained optimization problem and further a
difference of convex programming (DCP) problem. The initial condition for the
DCP problem is obtained by solving its convex part of the optimization problem
which happens to be a nuclear norm regularized optimization problem. Since the
nuclear norm regularized optimization is the closest convex form of the
low-rank constrained estimation problem, the obtained initial condition is
always of high quality which provides the DCP problem a good starting point.
The DCP problem is then solved by the sequential convex programming method.
Finally, numerical examples are included to show the effectiveness of the
developed identification algorithm.Comment: Accepted to IEEE Conference on Decision and Control (CDC) 201

### Fast Detection of Curved Edges at Low SNR

Detecting edges is a fundamental problem in computer vision with many
applications, some involving very noisy images. While most edge detection
methods are fast, they perform well only on relatively clean images. Indeed,
edges in such images can be reliably detected using only local filters.
Detecting faint edges under high levels of noise cannot be done locally at the
individual pixel level, and requires more sophisticated global processing.
Unfortunately, existing methods that achieve this goal are quite slow. In this
paper we develop a novel multiscale method to detect curved edges in noisy
images. While our algorithm searches for edges over a huge set of candidate
curves, it does so in a practical runtime, nearly linear in the total number of
image pixels. As we demonstrate experimentally, our algorithm is orders of
magnitude faster than previous methods designed to deal with high noise levels.
Nevertheless, it obtains comparable, if not better, edge detection quality on a
variety of challenging noisy images.Comment: 9 pages, 11 figure

### Localization and Positioning Using Combinations of Model Views

A method for localization and positioning in an indoor environment is presented. The method is based on representing the scene as a set of 2D views and predicting the appearances of novel views by linear combinations of the model views. The method is accurate under weak perspective projection. Analysis of this projection as well as experimental results demonstrate that in many cases it is sufficient to accurately describe the scene. When weak perspective approximation is invalid, an iterative solution to account for the perspective distortions can be employed. A simple algorithm for repositioning, the task of returning to a previously visited position defined by a single view, is derived from this method

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