7,232 research outputs found

    Desarrollo de membranas para la separación de olefinas utilizando redes metal orgánicas (mofs)

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    desarrollo de membranas de redes metal orgánicas ZIF-7 para la separación de oleofinasDue to the importance of the search for new methods in the industry, with low cost, less aggressive to the environment and easy to implement, the possibility of separation of olefins, in particular, propylene (C3H6) and propane (C3H8) a Through Metal Organic Networks (MOFs). MOF membrane technologies have become an active area in recent years, mainly because of the flexibility in design, as well as their thermal and chemical stability. In addition to being materials that can meet critical parameters such as selectivity without compromising permeation, unlike polymer or inorganic membranes. Therefore, it was proposed to construct a solid absorbent material such as Zeolitic Imidazolate Networks (ZIFs) and Organic Metal Networks (MOFs) supported on a solid material (α-alumina) for the Separation of propane-propylene, so that they can serve as a package within an adsorption column. The first part of the document presents generally the demand for propylene, the processes commonly employed in the separation of olefins-paraffins, a description of the MOFs and because they can be considered as an option, the methods for the preparation of membranes ending with a review of the state of the art of these materials in gas separation. The second part is composed of the experimental part for the synthesis of membranes by the in situ growth method for the membranes of ZIFs (ZIF-7 and ZIF- DESARROLLO DE MEMBRANAS PARA LA SEPARACIÓN DE OLEFINAS UTILIZANDO REDES METAL ORGANICAS (MOFs) xiii 8), while for the MOF membrane (HKUST-1) Was performed by secondary growth, complementing this section with the characterization techniques used as: scanning electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectrophotometry, thermogravimetric analysis as well as permeation tests to evaluate the performance of the membranes. Finally, the results of the synthesized membranes are presented, where a higher selectivity coefficient is presented for the ZIF-8 membrane ie it has a higher affinity for propane, whereas the HKUST-1 membrane reverses the affinity for propylene. Therefore, it is considered that this study has an important contribution to the recovery of olefins.conacy

    Fractional Driven Damped Oscillator

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    The resonances associated with a fractional damped oscillator which is driven by an oscillatory external force are studied. It is shown that such resonances can be manipulated by tuning up either the coefficient of the fractional damping or the order of the corresponding fractional derivatives.Comment: 5 pages, 1 Figure. A misprint appearing in Eq. (6) of the published version is amended. Based on the work presented by F. Olivar-Romero in the Quantum Fest 2016: International Conference on Quantum Phenomena, Quantum Control and Quantum Optics, 17-21 October 2016, Mexico City, Mexic

    Canada - Mexico Agricultural Economies and Trade Under Closer North American Relations

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    Continued expansion of economic and security relations between Canada, United States, and Mexico are expected in the years to come. The United States is by far the largest export market for both Canada and Mexico with each nation exporting over 80% of their products to this large economy. However, trade between Canada and Mexico has also grown significantly since the implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) a decade ago. The two-way trade between Canada and Mexico has more than doubled from Cdn 6.5billionin1995toCdn6.5 billion in 1995 to Cdn 15.1 billion in 2002, according to official Statistics Canada trade statistics. A recent merchandise trade reconciliation study undertaken between Statistics Canada and a Mexican Working Group on Foreign Trade Statistics has determined that the two-way trade was closer to Cdn $19 billion in 2001. This result ranks Canada as Mexico's second most important export market and ranks Mexico as Canada's fourth most important export market in 2001. In comparison, Mexico was ranked as Canada's 15th most important export market in 1995. This research study provides an overview of the trading relationship between Canada and Mexico with particular emphasis on agricultural trade. Approximately one-fifth of Canadian exports to Mexico are agricultural goods. Therefore, it is important to both countries that awareness is generated as to the nature of our bi-lateral trade and the changing socio-economic conditions that will enhance or hinder our trading relationship.International Relations/Trade,

    Strategy, innovation and internationalization processes: in search of useful synergies

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    Globalization of the economy has revived the interest on the theme of internationalization of companies. There may be several motives for a company to expand its markets, but whatever they are, the success of the process depends on specific and characteristic assets that the company possesses and on their capacity to provide competitive muscle. Among other strategic choices, the development of innovation capabilities is a possible path to provide the firm with knowledge and organizational assets that confer it a competitive edge. Knowledge assets are increasingly important in an interconnected and open world market, where traditional localized competitive factors, such as low labour costs, are rapidly losing appeal as drivers of sustainable and continued value creation. In a highly competitive international market, innovation and internationalization seem to be themes that are intrinsically related to each other, in the sense that knowledge and innovation capabilities seem to be a necessary prerequisite to an internationalization process. However, per se, innovation capabilities, and the assets behind it, may not be enough to a successful endeavour. In the absence of privileged, localized knowledge of the national market, strategic considerations are of paramount importance to the internationalization process. Strategic actions are important, not only at the planning stage but also at the implementation stage. It is argued in this paper that these aspects, knowledge, innovation and strategy, are crucial to understand actual internationalization processes and dynamics. This paper intends to examine the above concepts and the links between these factors and their effects on business performance and competitiveness and comprehend internationalization processes. It provides a comprehensive review on the literature regarding the possible connections between the three concepts and it identifies the main ideas and variables that have been suggested and are being regarded. It provides a useful synthesis and it suggests finfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Business strategies in contexts of high uncertainty : a case study on the innovation and internationalization processes of a technological Portuguese SME

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    Innovation and internationalization of small and medium enterprises are widely cited as decisive factors, for the sustainable growth of European economies, which are facing a deep crisis. The European Union launched in March 2010 a European strategy, called Europe 2020, to prepare the EU economy for the future, where growth is based in three dimensions: smart, sustainable and inclusive. In the Portuguese case, these factors become even more relevant, since the country is facing an unprecedented crisis that brought to the surface the vulnerabilities of its economic and financial system. This article is a case study of a small Portuguese technology based firm, where we will examine, in the light of the literature on strategic management, and the evaluation and selection of technologies, its innovation and internationalization processes, which are critical to its survival in a hypercompetitive global industry. The evaluation of new ideas and business concepts is a challenge for companies, especially in its early stages of development where there is not a tangible commercial product. This organization is launching a worldwide pioneering product, as a result of its research and development and innovation activities, and will have, if things go right, a huge successful impact on their competitiveness. The identification of the organizational characteristics that enabled the company to enhance its innovative stance, and to embrace the challenge to internationalize its activities, may help similar organizations improve their innovation and internationalization processes, which are critical to increase their competitiveness.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT

    Differential behaviour and innovation in the Portuguese capital goods sector

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    The paper reports the results of an empirical study of a sample of Portuguese producers of equipment goods. The information collected for this study was based on case studies of nineteen firms. The unit of analysis was the firm. The information was obtained during personal interviews with the owner/manager of the firm or with a Director, following a semi-structured questionnaire. It was based on SAPPHO-type matched pair methodology. The sample consisted of two groups: the “innovative group” and the "average group". It is a procedure equivalent to the experimental group (innovative) and the control group (average) methodology adopted in the social sciences. The firms were matched according to a set of criteria. The objective was to see if common behavioural patterns within the groups and different behavioural patterns between the groups could be discerned that in turn could point out regularities. The inquiry looked at several functions of the firm. After analysis it come out that there were indeed differences between the two groups of firms and that the variables which showed more variability between the two groups could be grouped according to five broad categories, namely: tangibles (variables related to tangible assets of the firm), intangibles (variables related to intangible assets of the firm), management (variables related to management styles of the firm), external stimuli (variables related to external contingencies) and external sources of knowledge (variables related to external sources of knowledge). Explanations for the differences in each broad category are given based on concepts such as demand-pull and technology-push theories, firm’s absorptive capacity, public and tacit knowledge, appropriability, human capital and social networks. Relying and building on short but hopefully elucidative descriptions of the case studies, the paper tries to explain the variation in innovation capacity making use of the chain-linked model of innovation. It builds on this model and, based on an extension of it, and inspired on evolutionary theories of technical change, it proposes a conceptual framework that contributes to explain the empirical findings.Junta Nacional de Investigação Científica e Tecnológica (JNICT

    Industry and academia networks

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    Universities have historically been a source of fundamental knowledge, and the premier source of technologies that have found innumerable applications (in the economy, in the military, in health care, etc.) and that have shaped the trajectory, the direction and the nature of social and economic development. The contribution of universities towards the economic fabric of a region, nation or supranational entity is manifold, and is recognised as essential to the creation of wealth. It is because of that recognition that there has been a growing need to understand in what ways knowledge created at the universities is transferred and it impacts upon society at large. Knowledge can take many forms, and the resources devoted to knowledge creation can themselves be allocated to different levels and degrees of activities related to that endeavour. However, resources are scarce and resource allocation to knowledge must be essentially of a long- range perspective. The distribution of resources in terms of short-range and long-range investment in knowledge is inextricably linked to the phenomena of university-industry relations. Many initiatives fostering linkages between universities and industry, with a view to increase or facilitate rates of technology transfer, implemented innovation and economic development. However, the contexts in which these relations occur vary broadly and presently, because resources for investment in knowledge creation are scarce and differentiated there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the variety of initiatives and relationships that exist, and the need for a deeper conceptualization of the forms, configurations, roles and expectations that shape and define existing relationships.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT

    Key factors affecting strategy-minded decision makers in their innovations choices

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    The rapid and continuous pace of technological change is a major challenge for all managers, who are often faced with innovations’ adoption decisions affecting the future of their companies. This is a fundamental issue on strategy, if we see strategy as a set of actions to make critical choices between two or more alternatives, in order to achieve competitive advantages or to respond to competitors. Strategy‐minded leaders try to predict the value that they will create with their choices in the organization. However, formulating strategy is a difficult task, due to the high level of uncertainty hampering the anticipation of future trends. An even harder work is the implementation of strategy, due to its interdependent relationship with strategy formulation, which is materialized in the organizational structure dedicated to fulfil the organization goals. In this work we propose to look at the factors that strategy‐minded leaders perceive that influence the adoption of innovations and we explore their relationships within several academic fields, of study, namely strategic management, organization theory, organization behaviour and organization development, adopting an holistic perspective that will allow for a better understanding of strategic adoption decisions. This analysis is grounded on field work that involved the collection of primary data from different enterprises. The research was based on a quantitative approach and on an intentional non‐probabilistic sampling strategy. The sample includes thirty four Portuguese firms, from different sectors. The selection criteria was based on the innovative performance of the firm, and on the concomitant presumption that innovative activities are well structured inside the firm. The sample includes micro, small, medium and large firms. A proportion of the sample includes conglomerates, and in fact, the sample represents approximately one hundred and twenty two firms, and a significant proportion of Portuguese gross expenditure on business R&D. A quantitative structured questionnaire was the main instrument of data collection, but some interviews with selected firms were also realized, in order to substantiate or consolidate some of the data that was obtained through the questionnaire. In this paper we present the preliminary results of the analysis of that data. Investment scheduling and costs appraisal, quantitative and qualitative advantages of the technology and strategic implications of its adoption are the factors that most often influence the decision of innovation adoption and the less common factors include the degree of formalization of decision procedures and the level/extent of the hierarchical chain.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT

    University-industry relations and technological convergence

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    University-industry relationships and the associated diversity of multi-institutional networks of researchers are phenomena that have important implications in terms of the management of technological integration. The nature of these peculiar relationships has inherent knowledge generation characteristics that may be particularly suitable to the task of integrating different approaches and different technologies in novel ways. This paper attempts to systematize and synthesize recent literature on the subject. It focuses on the relationships between forms or modes of academia and industry cooperative channels and their implications on knowledge production and exploitation. It explores their contribution in terms of its potential as a tool that can be used in the management of technological convergence. It presents relevant or illustrative examples, describing the main empirical findings and their important contributions, and it proposes a model that conceptualises the problem.Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT
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