9 research outputs found

    Limit on the Fierz Interference Term b from a Measurement of the Beta Asymmetry in Neutron Decay

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    In the standard model of particle physics, the weak interaction is described by vector and axial-vector couplings only. Non-zero scalar or tensor interactions would imply an additional contribution to the differential decay rate of the neutron, the Fierz interference term. We derive a limit on this hypothetical term from a measurement using spin polarized neutrons. This method is statistically less sensitive than the determination from the spectral shape but features much cleaner systematics. We obtain a limit of b = 0.017(21) at 68.27 C.L., improving the previous best limit from neutron decay by a factor of four.Comment: Phys. Rev. Lett., https://journals.aps.org/prl

    Design of the Magnet System of the Neutron Decay Facility PERC

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    The PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) facility is currently under construction at the research reactor FRM II, Garching. It will serve as an intense and clean source of electrons and protons from neutron beta decay for precision studies. It aims to contribute to the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing element VudV_{ud} from neutron decay data and to search for new physics via new effective couplings. PERC's central component is a 12m long superconducting magnet system. It hosts an 8m long decay region in a uniform field. An additional high-field region selects the phase space of electrons and protons which can reach the detectors and largely improves systematic uncertainties. We discuss the design of the magnet system and the resulting properties of the magnetic field.Comment: Proceedings of the International Workshop on Particle Physics at Neutron Sources PPNS 2018, Grenoble, France, May 24-26, 201

    Real-world evidence on siponimod treatment in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

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    BACKGROUND: Therapeutic options targeting inflammation in multiple sclerosis (MS) have evolved rapidly for relapsing–remitting MS, whereas few therapies are available for progressive forms of MS, in particular secondary progressive MS (SPMS). The approval of siponimod for SPMS has allowed for optimism in the otherwise discouraging therapeutic landscape. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter, non-interventional study analyzing the efficacy and safety of siponimod under real-world conditions in 227 SPMS patients. According to the retrospective study framework, data was acquired at prespecified time points. Clinical readouts were assessed every three months. Disease progression was determined as increase in expanded disability status scale (EDSS), radiological progression, or the occurrence of new relapses under treatment. For safety analyses, adverse events (AE) and reasons for discontinuation were documented. The collected data points were analyzed at baseline and after 6, 12 and 18 months. However, data were predominately collected at the 6- and 12-month time points as many patients were lost to follow-up. In a group consisting of 41 patients, a more detailed investigation regarding disease progression was conducted, including data from measurement of cognitive and motoric functions. RESULTS: Under siponimod therapy, 64.8% of patients experienced sustained clinical disease stability at 12 months. Out of the stable patients 21.4% of patients improved. Of the remaining patients, 31.5% experienced EDSS progression, 3.7% worsened without meeting the threshold for progression. Relapses occurred in 7.4%. Radiological disease activity was detected in 24.1% of patients after six months of treatment and in 29.6% of patients at 12 months follow-up. The in-depth cohort consisting of 41 patients demonstrated no substantial changes in cognitive abilities measured by Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Symbol Digit Modalities Test or motoric functions measured with Timed 25-Foot Walk, 100-m timed test, and 9-Hole Peg Test throughout the 12-month study period. Radiological assessment showed a stable volume of white and grey matter, as well as a stable lesion count at 12 months follow-up. AE were observed in nearly half of the included patients, with lymphopenia being the most common. Due to disease progression or AE, 31.2% of patients discontinued therapy. CONCLUSION: Treatment with siponimod had an overall stabilizing effect regarding clinical and radiological outcome measures. However, there is a need for more intensive treatment management and monitoring to identify disease progression and AE. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s42466-022-00219-3

    Limit on the Fierz Interference Term bb from a Measurement of the Beta Asymmetry in Neutron Decay

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    In the standard model of particle physics, the weak interaction is described by vector and axial-vector couplings only. Non-zero scalar or tensor interactions would imply an additional contribution to the differential decay rate of the neutron, the Fierz interference term. We derive a limit on this hypothetical term from a measurement using spin polarized neutrons. This method is statistically less sensitive than the determination from the spectral shape but features much cleaner systematics. We obtain a limit of b = 0.017(21) at 68.27 C.L., improving the previous best limit from neutron decay by a factor of four

    Towards a first measurement of the free neutron bound beta decay detecting hydrogen atoms at a throughgoing beamtube in a high flux reactor

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    In addition to the common 3-body decay of the neutron n → pe-ν̅e there should exist an effective 2-body subset with the electron and proton forming a Hydrogen bound state with well defined total momentum, total spin and magnetic quantum numbers. The atomic spectroscopic analysis of this bound system can reveal details about the underlying weak interaction as it mirrors the helicity distributions of all outgoing particles. Thus, it is unique in the information it carries, and an experiment unravelling this information is an analogue to the Goldhaber experiment performed more than 60 years ago. The proposed experiment will search for monoenergetic metastable BoB H atoms with 326 eV kinetic energy, which are generated at the center of a throughgoing beamtube of a high-flux reactor (e.g., at the PIK reactor, Gatchina). Although full spectroscopic information is needed to possibly reveal new physics our first aim is to prove the occurrence of this decay and learn about backgrounds. Key to the detection is the identification of a monoerergtic line of hydrogen atoms occurring at a rate of about 1 s−1 in the environment of many hydrogen atoms, however having a thermal distribution of about room temperature. Two scenarios for velocity (energy) filtering are discussed in this paper. The first builds on an purely electric chopper system, in which metastable hydrogen atoms are quenched to their ground state and thus remain mostly undetectable. This chopper system employs fast switchable Bradbury Nielsen gates. The second method exploits a strongly energy dependent charge exchange process of metastable hydrogen picking up an electron while traversing an argon filled gas cell, turning it into manipulable charged hydrogen. The final detection of hydrogen occurs through multichannel plate (MCP) detector. The paper describes the various methods and gives an outlook on rates and feasibility at the PIK reactor in Gatchina

    Towards a first measurement of the free neutron bound beta decay detecting hydrogen atoms at a throughgoing beamtube in a high flux reactor

    No full text
    In addition to the common 3-body decay of the neutron n → pe-ν̅e there should exist an effective 2-body subset with the electron and proton forming a Hydrogen bound state with well defined total momentum, total spin and magnetic quantum numbers. The atomic spectroscopic analysis of this bound system can reveal details about the underlying weak interaction as it mirrors the helicity distributions of all outgoing particles. Thus, it is unique in the information it carries, and an experiment unravelling this information is an analogue to the Goldhaber experiment performed more than 60 years ago. The proposed experiment will search for monoenergetic metastable BoB H atoms with 326 eV kinetic energy, which are generated at the center of a throughgoing beamtube of a high-flux reactor (e.g., at the PIK reactor, Gatchina). Although full spectroscopic information is needed to possibly reveal new physics our first aim is to prove the occurrence of this decay and learn about backgrounds. Key to the detection is the identification of a monoerergtic line of hydrogen atoms occurring at a rate of about 1 s−1 in the environment of many hydrogen atoms, however having a thermal distribution of about room temperature. Two scenarios for velocity (energy) filtering are discussed in this paper. The first builds on an purely electric chopper system, in which metastable hydrogen atoms are quenched to their ground state and thus remain mostly undetectable. This chopper system employs fast switchable Bradbury Nielsen gates. The second method exploits a strongly energy dependent charge exchange process of metastable hydrogen picking up an electron while traversing an argon filled gas cell, turning it into manipulable charged hydrogen. The final detection of hydrogen occurs through multichannel plate (MCP) detector. The paper describes the various methods and gives an outlook on rates and feasibility at the PIK reactor in Gatchina

    Design of the magnet system of the neutron decay facility PERC

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    The PERC (Proton and Electron Radiation Channel) facility is currently under construction at the research reactor FRM II, Garching. It will serve as an intense and clean source of electrons and protons from neutron beta decay for precision studies. It aims to contribute to the determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing element Vud from neutron decay data and to search for new physics via new effective couplings. PERC's central component is a 12 m long superconducting magnet system. It hosts an 8 m long decay region in a uniform field. An additional high-field region selects the phase space of electrons and protons which can reach the detectors and largely improves systematic uncertainties. We discuss the design of the magnet system and the resulting properties of the magnetic field
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