62 research outputs found

    Design of a high power production target for the Beam Dump Facility at CERN

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    The Beam Dump Facility (BDF) project is a proposed general-purpose facility at CERN, dedicated to beam dump and fixed target experiments. In its initial phase, the facility is foreseen to be exploited by the Search for Hidden Particles (SHiP) experiment. Physics requirements call for a pulsed 400 GeV/c proton beam as well as the highest possible number of protons on target (POT) each year of operation, in order to search for feebly interacting particles. The target/dump assembly lies at the heart of the facility, with the aim of safely absorbing the full high intensity Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) beam, while maximizing the production of charmed and beauty mesons. High-Z materials are required for the target/dump, in order to have the shortest possible absorber and reduce muon background for the downstream experiment. The high average power deposited on target (305 kW) creates a challenge for heat removal. During the BDF facility Comprehensive Design Study (CDS), launched by CERN in 2016, extensive studies have been carried out in order to define and assess the target assembly design. These studies are described in the present contribution, which details the proposed design of the BDF production target, as well as the material selection process and the optimization of the target configuration and beam dilution. One of the specific challenges and novelty of this work is the need to consider new target materials, such as a molybdenum alloy (TZM) as core absorbing material and Ta2.5W as cladding. Thermo-structural and fluid dynamics calculations have been performed to evaluate the reliability of the target and its cooling system under beam operation. In the framework of the target comprehensive design, a preliminary mechanical design of the full target assembly has also been carried out, assessing the feasibility of the whole target system.Comment: 17 pages, 18 figure

    How ultrasonography can contribute to diagnosis of craniosynostosis

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    International audienceIntroduction - The aim of this article was to provide an overview of ultrasound (US) techniques for the investigation of cranial sutures in infants. Material and methods - We first describe a high-resolution sonography technique and its limitations. We then analyze the reliability, effectiveness and role of ultrasonography in routine practice using a PubMed literature review. Results - Ten studies reported excellent correlations between ultrasonography and 3D-CT. Cranial US for the diagnosis of a closed suture had 100% sensitivity in 8 studies and 86-100% specificity before the age of 12 months. Negative findings mean imaging investigation can be stopped. If ultrasonography confirms diagnosis, neurosurgical consultation is required. Thus, 3D-CT can be postponed until appropriate before surgery. Conclusion - Cranial suture ultrasound is an effective and reliable technique for the diagnosis of craniosynostosis. It has many advantages: it is fast and non-irradiating, and no sedation is required. It should be used as first-line imaging in infants below the age of 8-12 months when craniosynostosis is clinically suspected

    Conceptual Design of the LHC Beam Dumping Protection Elements TCDS and TCDQ

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    The Beam Dumping System for the Large Hadron Collider, presently under construction at CERN, consists, per ring, of a set of horizontally deflecting extraction kicker magnets, vertically deflecting steel septa, dilution kickers and finally, a couple of hundred metres further downstream, an absorber block. A fixed diluter (TCDS) will protect the septa in the event of a beam dump that is not synchronised with the particle free gap or a spontaneous firing of the extraction kickers which will cause the beam to sweep over the septum. Another, mobile, diluter block (TCDQ) will protect the superconducting quadrupole immediate downstream of the extraction as well as the arc at injection energy and the triplet aperture at top energy from bunches with small impact parameters. This paper describes the conceptual design of the protection elements

    Pneumocephalus as a delayed mastoidectomy complication

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    The LINAC4 Power Coupler

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    Linac4 is employing three types of accelerating structures after the RFQ: a Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a Cell- Coupled DTL (CCDTL), and a Pi-Mode Structure (PIMS) to accelerate the beam up to 160 MeV at 352.2MHz. The structures are designed for a peak power of approximately 1 MW per power coupler, which is transported via rectangular waveguides from the klystron gallery to the RF cavities. The coupler itself consists of two parts: a ceramic window, which separates the cavity vacuum from the air in the waveguides, and a Tuner-adjustablewaveguide Coupler (TaCo), which couples the RF power through an iris to the cavity. In the frame of the Linac4 R&D both devices have been significantly improvedwith respect to their commonly used design. On the coupler side, the waveguide short circuit with its matched length has been replaced by a fixedlength /4 short circuit. The RF matching is done by a simple piston tuner, which allows a quick matching to different cavity quality factors. In the window part, which usually consists of a ceramic disc and 2 pieces of waveguides with matching elements, the waveguide sections could be completely suppressed, so that the window became very compact, lightweight, and much simpler to manufacture. In this paper we present electromagnetic simulations, and tests on first prototypes, which were constructed at CERN

    Arterial spin labeling in clinical pediatric imaging

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    International audienceArterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging is the only approach that enables direct and non-invasive quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow in the brain regions without administration of contrast material and without radiation. ASL is thus a promising perfusion imaging method for assessing cerebral blood flow in the pediatric population. Concerning newborns, there are current limitations because of their smaller brain size and lower brain perfusion. This article reviews and illustrates the use of ASL in pediatric clinical practice and discusses emerging cerebral perfusion imaging applications for children due to the highly convenient implementation of the ASL sequence. (C) 2015 Editions francaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved

    Surgical declarative knowledge learning: concept and acceptability study

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    International audienceImproving surgical training by means of technology assistance is an important challenge that aims to directly impact surgical quality. Surgical training includes the acquisition of two categories of knowledge: declarative knowledge (i.e. 'knowing what') and procedural knowledge (i.e. 'knowing how'). It is essential to acquire both before performing any particular surgery. There are currently many tools for acquiring procedural knowledge, such as simulators. However, few approaches or tools allow a trainer to formalize and record surgical declarative knowledge, and a trainee to have easy access to it. In this paper, we propose an approach for structuring surgical declarative knowledge according to procedural knowledge and based on surgical process modeling. A dedicated software application has been implemented. We evaluated the concept and the software usability on two procedures with different medical populations: endoscopic third ventriculostomy involving 6 neurosurgeons and preparation of a surgical table for craniotomy involving 4 scrub nurses. The results of both studies show that surgical process models could be a well-adapted approach for structuring and visualizing surgical declarative knowledge. The software application was perceived by neurosurgeons and scrub nurses as an innovative tool for managing and presenting surgical knowledge. The preliminary results show that the feasibility of the proposed approach and the acceptability and usability of the corresponding software. Future experiments will study impact of such an approach on knowledge acquisition
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