223 research outputs found

    Control del reloj circadiano por la se帽al fotoperi贸dica en plantas

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    Los organismos fotosint茅ticos son muy eficientes en la adaptaci贸n de su desarrollo a las condiciones ambientales. Para conseguir esta adaptaci贸n monitorizan continuamente los est铆mulos externos que les llegan del ambiente y promueven cambios fisiol贸gicos, como ocurre con las modificaciones del transcriptoma. La luz solar es esencial para la supervivencia de los organismos fotosint茅ticos, ya que constituye su principal fuente de energ铆a y controla m煤ltiples aspectos de su fisiolog铆a. En la percepci贸n de la luz en plantas y algas participan un conjunto de receptores y factores de transcripci贸n que conectan las se帽ales procedentes de la luz con cambios espec铆ficos en la expresi贸n g茅nica. La existencia de eventos externos c铆clicos muy predecibles como la sucesi贸n de d铆as/noches o de las estaciones, permite coordinar y anticipar de manera muy robusta los procesos biol贸gicos. Esta medida del tiempo es llevada a cabo por un oscilador interno denominado reloj circadiano. Por otra parte, la se帽alizaci贸n de la v铆a fotoperi贸dica permite a los organismos vegetales medir la longitud del d铆a y as铆 obtener informaci贸n estacional para controlar complejos procesos que son clave para su supervivencia como la floraci贸n. Uno de los genes centrales en esta v铆a es CONSTANS, que est谩 regulado a nivel transcripcional y postraduccional por el reloj circadiano y por se帽ales luminosas. En esta tesis doctoral se ha seguido un enfoque de Biolog铆a Molecular de Sistemas para entender c贸mo han evolucionado estos procesos a lo largo del linaje verde, se han generado herramientas para su estudio y finalmente se ha descrito una nueva conexi贸n entre el reloj circadiano y la v铆a fotoperi贸dica en la planta modelo Arabidopsis thaliana. En una primera aproximaci贸n investigamos la evoluci贸n de la expresi贸n g茅nica diaria en el linaje vegetal, empleando las microalgas Ostreococcus tauri y Chlamydomonas reinhardtii y la planta superior Arabidopsis thaliana. Inicialmente, realizamos un estudio de ortolog铆a que ha revelado por una parte la aparici贸n de genes espec铆ficos en Chamydomonas y Arabidopsis y por otra parte la amplificaci贸n y diversificaci贸n de familias g茅nicas. Adem谩s, hemos investigado c贸mo ha cambiado la influencia de los ciclos d铆a/noche sobre el transcriptoma a lo largo de la evoluci贸n vegetal mediante la construcci贸n de redes de co-expresi贸n en ciclos de luz/oscuridad. Nuestros resultados indican una mayor dependencia de los ciclos diurnos en microalgas que en plantas. En cuanto a la evoluci贸n de los patrones de expresi贸n, hemos observado un alto nivel de conservaci贸n en genes que se expresan en las transiciones luz/oscuridad a pesar de la gran distancia evolutiva entre algas y plantas. Estos resultados pueden ser explorados en la herramienta CircadiaNet. En segundo lugar, construimos la red transcripcional ATTRACTOR que integra datos transcript贸micos y datos de ChIP-seq de factores de transcripci贸n involucrados en el reloj circadiano y en la se帽alizaci贸n por luz. De esta forma, el estudio de la red permite investigar la regulaci贸n coordinada del reloj circadiano y la se帽alizaci贸n lum铆nica sobre la expresi贸n g茅nica en Arabidopsis. Mediante el an谩lisis topol贸gico de ATTRACTOR hemos descrito que estos programas transcripcionales poseen la caracter铆stica conocida como 鈥渞obusto pero fr谩gil鈥, es decir, son robustos frente a ataques aleatorios y fr谩giles frente a ataques dirigidos a genes altamente conectados. Por otra parte, se ha demostrado que los genes cuya regulaci贸n es m谩s dependiente del reloj circadiano se expresan durante las primeras horas de la ma帽ana, modulando procesos concretos como respuesta inmune, respuesta a hormonas o crecimiento. Adem谩s, se ha descrito que algunos motivos de red compuestos por varios factores de transcripci贸n pueden explicar la regulaci贸n de determinados aspectos del desarrollo, dando lugar a propiedades emergentes. Por ejemplo, el motivo formado por CCA1, PIF y PRR5 participa en la respuesta a sequ铆a y fr铆o. Para este fin, se ha desarrollado una aplicaci贸n web para su exploraci贸n por parte de la comunidad cient铆fica. Por 煤ltimo, utilizando estas herramientas, hemos demostrado un nuevo papel para CO en la regulaci贸n del reloj circadiano en Arabidopsis. CO formar铆a parte de una se帽alizaci贸n retr贸grada desde la v铆a fotoperi贸dica hacia el oscilador central, proporcionando informaci贸n estacional al reloj. En condiciones de d铆a largo, CO se une a genes centrales del reloj circadiano para alterar su perfil de expresi贸n. Uno de estos genes es el PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 5 (PRR5), con el que adem谩s comparte sitios de uni贸n en el genoma. Por ello, CO y PRR5 establecen un motivo de doble retroalimentaci贸n con salida m煤ltiple regulando genes diana en com煤n. Adem谩s, hemos encontrado que CO se une a motivos de DNA G-box en estos promotores, probablemente a trav茅s del factor de transcripci贸n bZIP LONG HYPOCOTIL 5 (HY5).Photosynthetic organisms are highly efficient in the adaptation of their development to environmental conditions. To achieve this, they continuosly track the external stimuli and promote physiological changes, which can be readily checked by transcriptome modifications. Sunlight is essential for plant survival as it is the main energy source and controls multiple aspects of their physiology. In plants and algae, light perception is carried out by several receptors and transcription factors that connect light signals with specific changes in gene expression. The existence of highly predictable cyclical external events, such as the succession of days/nights or seasons, allows them to coordinate and anticipate biological processes in a robust way. This daily time measurement is performed by an internal oscillator called circadian clock. Alternatively, the photoperiodic regulatory pathway allows plants and algae to measure the day length and obtain seasonal information to control complex processes that are key to their survival, such as flowering. One of the key genes in this pathway is CONSTANS, which is regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels by the circadian clock and by light signals. In this doctoral thesis, a Molecular Systems Biology approach was chosen to try to understand how these processes have evolved along the green lineage. Several tools have been generated for their study and a new connection between the circadian clock and the photoperiodic pathway has been described in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Firstly, we studied the diurnal gene expression evolution along the plant lineage, using the microalgae Ostreococcus tauri and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and the spermatophyte Arabidopsis thaliana. Initially, we have carried out an orthology analysis that has revealed, on the one hand, the emergence of specific genes in Chamydomonas and Arabidopsis and, on the other hand, the amplification and diversification of gene families between plants and algae. In addition, we have investigated the influence raised by day/night cycles on the transcriptome throughout evolution by constructing gene networks of light/dark samples. Our results indicate a greater dependence on diurnal cycles in microalgae than in plants. Regarding the evolution of expression patterns, we have observed a high level of conservation in genes that are expressed in light/dark transitions despite the great evolutionary distance between algae and plants. These results can be explored in the CircadiaNet web. Second, the ATTRACTOR transcriptional network allows to elucidate the coordinated regulation of circadian clock and light signalling on Arabidopsis gene expression. Through the topological analysis of the network, we have shown that these transcriptional programs have the property known as 鈥渞obust but fragile鈥, meaning that they are robust against random failures and fragile against attacks directed at highly connected genes. Furthermore, we have shown that those genes whose regulation is more dependent on the circadian clock are expressed during the first hours of the morning, modulating specific processes such as the plant pathogen interaction, response to hormones or growth. In addition, it has been described that network motifs constituted by several transcription factors may help to explain the regulation of certain aspects of development, giving rise to emergent properties. For example, the CCA1/PIF5/PRR5 network motif participates in the response to drought and cold. For this reason, a web application has been developed and is available for the scientific community. Finally, using these tools, we have demonstrated a new role for CO in the regulation of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. CO would participate in a retrograde signaling from the photoperiodic pathway to the central oscillator, providing seasonal information to the system. Under long-day conditions, CO could bind the promoter of core genes of the circadian clock to alter its expression profile. One of these genes is the PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR 5 (PRR5), which also shares CO binding sites in the genome. Therefore, CO and PRR5 establish a double feedback motif with multiple output regulating common target genes. Furthermore, we have found that CO binds to G-box DNA motifs in these promoters, probably through a bZIP transcription factor, such as LONG HYPOCOTIL 5 (HY5)

    Estudio y Simulaci贸n Ac煤stica del Auditorio de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

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    En este documento se realiza un estudio ac煤stico del Auditorio de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, denominado auditorio Padre Soler y ubicado en Legan茅s, en el campus de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Aunque el auditorio se utiliza con fines muy variados, el estudio se ha llevado a cabo desde el punto de vista de su uso como espacio para la m煤sica, dado que en su construcci贸n se dise帽o con el objetivo de tener una buena calidad para este tipo de espect谩culos. El trabajo se puede dividir en tres grandes partes. Una introducci贸n te贸rica considerando los conceptos necesarios para entender la ac煤stica arquitect贸nica y su importancia a la hora de dise帽ar un recinto, la simulaci贸n ac煤stica del auditorio mediante el software EASE y la caracterizaci贸n ac煤stica del recinto mediante mediciones. En la introducci贸n te贸rica se recoge un breve repaso de los conceptos b谩sicos de la ac煤stica y la ac煤stica de recintos. Tambi茅n se realiza una descripci贸n de los diferentes par谩metros utilizados para cualificar objetivamente la idoneidad de un espacio, sabiendo que se va a utilizar para un fin ac煤stico concreto. La simulaci贸n con software es una buena herramienta para comprobar que el recinto va a ser id贸neo ac煤sticamente antes de ser construido y cuales son los materiales que se deberan usar en su construcci贸n, desde el punto de vista ac煤stico. En este caso, dado que el recinto ya se encuentra construido, contar con un modelo virtual del auditorio permite realizar una comprobaci贸n exhaustiva de sus propiedades ac煤sticas. Adem谩s, dicho modelo virtual tambi茅n permitir谩 llevar a cabo procesos de auralizaci贸n, mediante los cu谩les se puede simular c贸mo sonar谩 una interpretaci贸n en dicho recinto, sin necesidad de estar dentro del mismo. Por 煤ltimo, se puede evaluar el efecto de cualquier modificaci贸n que se pretenda realizar sobre la ac煤stica del recinto, antes de que sea llevada a cabo. Las mediciones in situ permiten evaluar el espacio ac煤stico en su estado actual, pudiendo obtenerse diferentes par谩metros ac煤sticos e incluso identificar los defectos ac煤sticos que puedan existir en el recinto.Ingenier铆a de Sistemas Audiovisuale

    An谩lisis estad铆stico de redes sociales

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    Hoy en d铆a las redes sociales poseen un gran impacto en la sociedad, llegando a un punto en el que un gran porcentaje de la poblaci贸n utiliza al menos una red social, a trav茅s de la cual interact煤a de alguna manera con las dem谩s personas, no solo las personas sino que muchas empresas toman partido en ello creando perfiles con los que relacionarse y promocionar sus productos o tratar con clientes. Es por ello que ha surgido un interes en intentar analizar las redes sociales apareciendo aplicaciones estad铆sticas que se encargan de ello facilitando una gran cantidad de informaci贸n respecto a todo lo que ocurre dentro de estas. En este trabajo vamos a tratar algunas t茅cnicas estad铆sticas con las que podemos analizar varios temas de la red social 鈥淭witter鈥. En el primer cap铆tulo realizaremos un breve resumen sobre la historia de las redes sociales y su evoluci贸n en el tiempo as铆 como una descripci贸n de la red social Twitter y el software que vamos a usar para el an谩lisis. En el segundo cap铆tulo explicaremos como podemos obtener datos de la red social directamente usando el software R y la modelizaci贸n de estos datos obtenidos asi como un ejemplo gr谩fico de su interpretaci贸n. El tercer cap铆tulo consta del tratamiento de datos, aqu铆 veremos como podemos tratar los datos obtenidos en el capitulo anterior con el fin de realizar un posterior an谩lisis. Adem谩s realizaremos un gr谩fico de frecuencias sobre unos datos ya tratados. El cuarto cap铆tulo, que es el mas denso, trata sobre las diferentes aplicaciones que podemos hacer con los datos tratados anteriormente, podemos ver desde gr谩ficos de nubes de palabras y agrupamientos en cl煤steres hasta gr谩ficos de geolocalizaci贸n y estudios sobre hashtags. En el quinto cap铆tulo realizamos una de las aplicaciones m谩s usadas en el campo del an谩lisis de redes sociales como es el an谩lisis de sentimientos de los tweets. Aqu铆 podremos ver una clasificaci贸n tanto en sentimientos como en polaridad de los datos que obtendremos sobre una conocida empresa de ropa. Por 煤ltimo veremos una introducci贸n al mundo de las redes multicapas donde desarrollaremos una base te贸rica sobre ello para terminar viendo algunos ejemplos de lo que podemos hacer usando el software R.Today social networks have a great impact on society, reaching a point where a large percentage of the population uses at least one social network through which interacts in some way with other people, not just people but many companies take sides in creating profiles with which to relate and promote their products or deal with customers. That is why there has been an interest in trying to analyze social networks by appearing statistical applications that take care of it by providing a large amount of information about everything that happens within them. In this work we will discuss some statistical techniques with which we can analyze various topics of the social network 鈥淭witter鈥. In the first chapter we will make a brief summary about the history of social networks and their evolution over time as well as a description of the social network Twitter and the software that we will use for the analysis. In the second chapter we will explain how we can obtain data from the social network directly using the R software and the modeling of this data obtained as well as a graphic example of its interpretation. The third chapter consists of the data processing, here we will see how we can treat the data obtained in the previous chapter in order to carry out a later analysis. In addition we will make a graph of frequencies on some data already treated. The fourth chapter, which is the most dense, deals with the different applications that we can do with the data discussed above, we can see from graphics of word clouds and groupings in clusters to graphs of geolocation and studies on hashtags. In the fifth chapter we made one of the most used applications in the field of social network analysis such as the analysis of feelings of tweets. Here we can see a classification of both feelings and polarity of the data we will obtain about a well-known clothing company. Finally we will see an introduction to the world of multilayer networks where we will develop a theoretical basis about it to finish seeing some examples of what we can do using the software R.Universidad de Sevilla. Doble Grado en Matem谩ticas y Estad铆stic

    Analog铆a did谩ctica del posible origen sedimentario/ metam贸rfico de la pirita de Navaj煤n (La Rioja) como mejora de la ense帽anza de la Geolog铆a: 鈥淒e fangos malolientes al falso oro鈥

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    Amb la intenci贸 d鈥檃profundir en noves maneres de treballar a l鈥檃ula, aix铆 com en l鈥檈laboraci贸 de pr脿ctiques i activitats noves, sorgeix aquesta proposta d鈥檌nnovaci贸 educativa dins del marc del treball de fi del M脿ster de Formaci贸 de Professorat d鈥橢ducaci贸 Secund脿ria, amb l鈥檕bjectiu de fer con猫ixer entre l鈥檃lumnat l鈥檕rigen d鈥檜ns els minerals m茅s coneguts, la pirita. L鈥檃ctivitat fomenta la idea que ensenyar no 茅s un proc茅s estanc, sin贸 que ha d鈥檌mplicar multitud de disciplines en el seu estudi; en el nostre cas, la geologia, la microbiologia, el medi ambient i la qu铆mica b脿sica, millorant amb aix貌 la percepci贸 del car脿cter multidisciplinar de la ci猫ncia. Es proposa un exemple de metodologia activa que promou un entorn actiu i participatiu, partint de les concepcions inicials dels estudiants i prenent com a model l鈥檃prenentatge significatiu basat en analogies i treball cooperatiu.With the goal of delving into new ways of working in the classroom, as well as the development of novel practices and activities, we created this educational innovation within the framework of the Master鈥檚 Thesis in Secondary Education Teacher Training with the aim of to making students know about the origin of one of the best-known minerals, pyrite. The activity encourages the idea that teaching is not a hermetic process but must involve a multitude of disciplines in its study, in our case, geology, microbiology, environment and basic chemistry, thus improving the perception of the multidisciplinary nature of science. We propose an example of an active methodology that promotes an active and participative environment, starting from the students鈥 initial conceptions and taking as a model the significant learning based on analogies and cooperative work.Con la intenci贸n de profundizar en nuevos modos de trabajo en el aula, as铆 como la elaboraci贸n de novedosas pr谩cticas y actividades, surge esta propuesta de innovaci贸n educativa dentro del marco de trabajo en el Master de Formaci贸n de Profesorado de Educaci贸n Secundaria, con el objetivo de dar a conocer entre el alumnado el origen de uno de los m谩s conocidos minerales, la pirita. La actividad fomenta la correspondencia de que la ense帽anza no es un proceso estanco sino que debe implicar a multitud de disciplinas en su estudio; en nuestro caso la geolog铆a, la microbiolog铆a, el medioambiente y la qu铆mica b谩sica, mejorando con ello la percepci贸n del car谩cter multidisciplinar de la ciencia. Se propone un ejemplo de metodolog铆a que promueve un entorno activo y participativo, partiendo de las concepciones iniciales de los estudiantes y tomando como modelo el aprendizaje significativo basado en analog铆as y trabajo cooperativo.

    Characterization of the sucrose phosphate phosphatase (SPP) isoforms from Arabidopsis thaliana and role of the S6PPc domain in dimerization

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    Sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (SPP) catalyses the final step in the sucrose biosynthesis pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana genome codifies four SPP isoforms. In this study, the four Arabidopsis thaliana genes coding for SPP isoforms have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and the kinetic and regulatory properties of the purified enzymes analysed. SPP2 is the isoform showing the highest activity, with SPP3b and SPP3a showing lower activity levels. No activity was detected for SPP1. We propose that this lack of activity is probably due to the absence of an essential amino acid participating in catalysis and/or in the binding of the substrate, sucrose-6-phosphate (Suc6P). The expression patterns of Arabidopsis SPP genes indicate that SPP2 and SPP3b are the main isoforms expressed in different tissues and organs, although the non-catalytic SPP1 is the main isoform expressed in roots. Thus, SPP1 could have acquired new unknown functions. We also show that the three catalytically active SPPs from Arabidopsis are dimers. By generating a chimeric SPP composed of the monomeric cyanobacterial SPP fused to the higher plant non-catalytic S6PPc domain (from SPP2), we show that the S6PPc domain is responsible for SPP dimerization. This is the first experimental study on the functionality and gene expression pattern of all the SPPs from a single plant species.Ministerio de Econom铆a y Competitividad TRANSPLANTA Consolider 28317Junta de Andaluc铆a P08-AGR-03582 y CVI-28

    Exergy analysis of solar central receivers

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    A high-resolution method to analyse the exergy of the SPT external tubular receivers is presented, examining the different heat transfer process involved individually. This sheds light on the role that each irreversibility source plays in the outcome, aiding in the receiver design and the facility location selection. The exergy efficiency is around 32% in the base configuration. Besides the exergy loss in the heliostat field, over 40%, it is found that the biggest exergy destruction cause are the radiation emissions and absorptions in the tube outer surface, around 17%. From the remaining ones, the greatest are the exergy destructed in the HTF and the one escaping to the ambient (over 4% each). Then, the exergy balance for a variety of strategies and ambient conditions is performed: optical properties of the tubes coating, peak and flat aiming strategies, DNI and ambient temperature. The heliostat field exergy loss rate only varies when changing the aiming. However, the emission and absorption losses and the ones in the HTF suffer the greater modifications with all the parameters studied. The impact of the optical properties degradation, 1% descent in the efficiency per 5% degradation, would advise repainting works in order to avoid greater exergy destruction. The surroundings temperature modification impacts considerably the exergy efficiency, showing the suitability of locations with low ambient temperature and a moderate DNI: descends of over 0.35% occur every 5 掳C increase of the temperature for a fixed DNI.This research is partially funded by the scholarship "Ayudas para la formaci贸n del profesorado universitario"; (FPU-02361) awarded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educaci贸n, Cultura y Deporte (MECD), the fellowship"Ayuda a la investigaci贸n en energ铆a y medio ambiente" of the Iberdrola Espa帽a Foundation, the Spanish government under the project RTI2018-096664-B-C21 (MICINN/FEDER, UE) and the call "Programa de apoyo a la realizaci贸n de proyectos interdisciplinares de I+D para j贸venes investigadores de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 2019-2020", under the frame of the Convenio Plurianual Comunidad de Madrid- Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    Assessment of the time resolution used to estimate the central solar receiver lifetime

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    This study assesses the impact of the time resolution and design day on the estimated lifetime of the molten-salt external tubular receiver of a solar power tower, one of the most damaged components of these facilities, considering operation under clear conditions. A global analysis is performed by first determining the heliostat field aiming strategy; the receiver operation limits are set to keep a low enough film temperature and to avoid the stress reset. The former prevents excessive corrosion rates of the tubes while the latter assures the global stress relaxation, which significantly reduces their damage during the receiver cyclic operation. Time steps of 60, 30, 15, 5 and 1 min are tested considering the spring equinox design day, as well as only solar noon conditions. The latter significantly underpredicts the receiver lifetime with respect to the 1-min case, being early discarded. The lifetime in the most damaged panel is underestimated over 18% and 16% using the 60- and 30-minute time steps, dropping to 2.57% using the 5-min time step at a reasonable computational cost. Finer resolutions enable more precise aiming strategy selection, decreasing the receiver peak fluxes. Lastly, a set of 8 representative days for the year, equally spaced in solar height, is more accurate than using the spring equinox alone, which results in an underestimate of the receiver lifetime that may be overly conservative. The summer solstice is the least-damaging day, with the lifetime decreasing as approaching the winter one, as long as the storage tank is filled.This research is partially funded by the scholarship "Ayudas para la formaci贸n del profesorado universitario" (FPU-02361) awarded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educaci贸n, Cultura y Deporte (MECD), the Spanish government under the project RTI2018-096664-B-C21 (MICINN/FEDER, UE) and the call "Programa de apoyo a la realizaci贸n de proyectos interdisciplinares de I + D para j贸venes investigadores de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 2019-2020", under the projects RETOrenovable-CM-UC3M and ZEROGASPAIN-CM-UC3M, funded on the frame of the Convenio Plurianual Comunidad de Madrid- Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    Material selection for solar central receiver tubes

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    The severe operation conditions and great capital investment of solar power tower central receivers motivate the lifetime analysis of a molten-salt external-cylindrical-tubular receiver, considering five alloy alternatives for its tubes manufacturing: Haynes 230, alloy 316H, Inconel 625, 740H and 800H. An analytical low-computational cost methodology is employed, considering the temperature dependence of tube material properties, elastic-plastic stresses/strains and stress relaxation. Thus, creep and fatigue experimental data available in the literature for these alloys are compiled in this work, providing the coefficients required for the methodology followed. A great alloys operation limitation is the film temperature to avoid corrosion issues; the most permissive are H230, 740H and 800H (650 掳C), followed by Inconel 625 (630 掳C) and 316H (600 掳C). This, and the twice the yield strength, is regarded to set the heliostat field aiming strategy as equatorial as possible for each alloy, resulting in great power production divergences: 24% and 65% less for 625 and alloy 316H receivers with respect to the 740H receiver. Then, the lifetime analysis for a clear design day operation, representative of the receiver during ideal operation, is performed. The stress relaxation regard becomes critical for the accurate damage prediction; alloys 316H and 800H show stress reset during operation, not benefitting from a global stress relaxation. Thus, 800H exhibits a poor endurance. For the clear-day assumption, 740H shows the best lifetime and costs/power performance; the levelized cost of alloy of H230, 625 and alloy 316H is 0.01, 0.09 and over 0.25, respectively, with respect to 740H.This research is partially funded by the scholarship "Ayudas para la formaci贸n del profesorado universitario" [grant number FPU-02361] awarded by the Spanish Ministerio de Educaci贸n, Cultura y Deporte (MECD), the Spanish government under the project RTI2018-096664-B-C21 (MICINN/FEDER, UE) and the call "Programa de apoyo a la realizaci贸n de proyectos interdisciplinares de I+D para j贸venes investigadores de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid 2019-2020", under the projects RETOrenovable-CM-UC3M [grant number 2020/00034/001] and ZEROGASPAIN-CM-UC3M [grant number 2020/00033/001], funded on the frame of the Convenio Plurianual Comunidad de Madrid- Universidad Carlos III de Madrid

    ALGAEFUN with MARACAS, microALGAE FUNctional enrichment tool for MicroAlgae RnA-seq and Chip-seq AnalysiS

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    Background Microalgae are emerging as promising sustainable sources for biofuels, biostimulants in agriculture, soil bioremediation, feed and human nutrients. Nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms underpinning microalgae physiology and the biosynthesis of compounds of biotechnological interest are largely uncharacterized. This hinders the development of microalgae full potential as cell-factories. The recent application of omics technologies into microalgae research aims at unraveling these systems. Nevertheless, the lack of specific tools for analysing omics raw data generated from microalgae to provide biological meaningful information are hampering the impact of these technologies. The purpose of ALGAEFUN with MARACAS consists in providing researchers in microalgae with an enabling tool that will allow them to exploit transcriptomic and cistromic high-throughput sequencing data. Results ALGAEFUN with MARACAS consists of two different tools. First, MARACAS (MicroAlgae RnA-seq and Chip-seq AnalysiS) implements a fully automatic computational pipeline receiving as input RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) or ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) raw data from microalgae studies. MARACAS generates sets of differentially expressed genes or lists of genomic loci for RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analysis respectively. Second, ALGAEFUN (microALGAE FUNctional enrichment tool) is a web-based application where gene sets generated from RNA-seq analysis as well as lists of genomic loci from ChIP-seq analysis can be used as input. On the one hand, it can be used to perform Gene Ontology and biological pathways enrichment analysis over gene sets. On the other hand, using the results of ChIP-seq data analysis, it identifies a set of potential target genes and analyses the distribution of the loci over gene features. Graphical representation of the results as well as tables with gene annotations are generated and can be downloaded for further analysis. Conclusions ALGAEFUN with MARACAS provides an integrated environment for the microalgae research community that facilitates the process of obtaining relevant biological information from raw RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data. These applications are designed to assist researchers in the interpretation of gene lists and genomic loci based on functional enrichment analysis. ALGAEFUN with MARACAS is publicly available on https://greennetwork.us.es/AlgaeFUN/.Espa帽a Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci贸n project MINOTAUR (BIO2017-84066-R

    Mart铆, un ejemplo de comunicador pol铆tico para los dirigentes cubanos. (Ensayo)

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    Knowledge of the different dimensions of Marti鈥檚 work is essential to the construction of socialism in Cuba. In this regard, in the article, the authors work on the problem of political communication in Jos茅 Mart铆. The article aims at analyzing elements of the Apostle's transcendence as a political communicator and his influence on the work of the leaders. The investigation shows the characteristic aspects of the Martian work referred by different authors. It also provides arguments that show the previously proposed aspects seen by the researchers themselves at work. On the other hand, the study specifies the validity of Mart铆鈥檚 work as content of political communication in Cuba today. All this contributes to the characterization of this phenomenon in the work of the Cuban Revolution.El conocimiento de las diferentes dimensiones de la obra martiana es consustancial a la construcci贸n del socialismo en Cuba. Al respecto, en el art铆culo, los autores trabajan el problema de la comunicaci贸n pol铆tica en Jos茅 Mart铆.  Estos, plantean como objetivo: analizar elementos de la transcendencia del Ap贸stol como comunicador pol铆tico y su influencia en la labor de los dirigentes. Esta investigaci贸n muestra los aspectos caracter铆sticos de la obra martiana referido por diferentes autores. Asimismo, brinda argumentos que muestran los aspectos propuestos anteriormente vistos por los propios investigadores en el trabajo. Por otro lado, el estudio precisa la vigencia de la obra martiana como contenido de la comunicaci贸n pol铆tica en la Cuba actual. Todo ello contribuye con la caracterizaci贸n de este fen贸meno en la obra de la Revoluci贸n Cubana
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