2,169 research outputs found

    The Institutional Framework of Ethnic Inclusion and Exclusion: A Cross-National Analysis of the Earnings of Foreigners in Germany and Immigrants in Canada

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    The European social-welfare model differs from the North American individualistic model in the patterns, more than the overall extent, of ethnic inclusion and exclusion. Focussing on foreigners in Germany and immigrants in Canada as illustrative cases, conventional earnings decomposition analysis is extended cross-nationally to highlight institutional effects, using the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) first wave for 1984, and the 1986 Canadian Census. German education and labor market institutions benefit low-skill migrants, but generate less earnings assimilation. Such assimilation in Canada is greater but varies more by ethnic and racial origins. Institutional frameworks may generate social imperatives shaping patterns of ethnic inclusion and exclusion, quite apart from national policies of citizenship or culture.

    Thermoluminescence fading studies: Implications for long-duration space measurements in Low Earth Orbit

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    Within a 1.5 year comprehensive fading experiment several batches of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were studied. The TLDs originated from two manufacturers and were processed by three laboratories using different annealing and readout conditions. The TLDs were irradiated with two radiation modalities (gamma-rays and thermal neutrons) and were stored at two temperatures (-17.4C and +18.5C). The goal of the experiment was to verify the stability of TLDs in the context of their application in long-term measurements in space. The results revealed that the response of all TLDs is stable within 10% for the studied temperature range. No influence of the radiation type was found. These results indicate that for the properly oven-annealed LiF TLDs, fading is not a significant problem, even for measuring periods longer than a year

    History of Applied Sociology

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    Policy Brief No. 14 - The Underutilization of Immigrant Skills: Trends and Policy Issues

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    Since 1996, the problem of underutilization of immigrant skills in Canada has grown significantly. University-educated immigrants are more numerous, yet our census analysis shows that their access to skilled occupations in the professions and management declined between 1996 and 2006. In these years, the value of work lost to the Canadian economy from immigrant skill underutilization grew from about 4.80billionto4.80 billion to 11.37 billion, annually. Given the significance of immigration for economic development, the evaluation of current policies and consideration of future directions seem urgent

    Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

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    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a preparation for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radiation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported experiment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors, mimicking a human head and torso. The MTR experiment, led by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched in January 2004 and has measured the absorbed dose from space radiation both inside and outside the ISS. In this paper preliminary comparisons of measurements outside the ISS will be presented. The results confirm previous calculations and measurements which indicate that PHITS is a suitable tool for estimations of dose received from cosmic radiation and when performing shielding design studies of spacecraft

    The ALTCRISS project on board the International Space Station

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    The Altcriss project aims to perform a long term survey of the radiation environment on board the International Space Station. Measurements are being performed with active and passive devices in different locations and orientations of the Russian segment of the station. The goal is to perform a detailed evaluation of the differences in particle fluence and nuclear composition due to different shielding material and attitude of the station. The Sileye-3/Alteino detector is used to identify nuclei up to Iron in the energy range above 60 MeV/n. Several passive dosimeters (TLDs, CR39) are also placed in the same location of Sileye-3 detector. Polyethylene shielding is periodically interposed in front of the detectors to evaluate the effectiveness of shielding on the nuclear component of the cosmic radiation. The project was submitted to ESA in reply to the AO in the Life and Physical Science of 2004 and data taking began in December 2005. Dosimeters and data cards are rotated every six months: up to now three launches of dosimeters and data cards have been performed and have been returned with the end of expedition 12 and 13.Comment: Accepted for publication on Advances in Space Research http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2007.04.03
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