193 research outputs found

    Technical Note: Regularization performances with the error consistency method in the case of retrieved atmospheric profiles

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    International audienceThe retrieval of concentration vertical profiles of atmospheric constituents from spectroscopic measurements is often an ill-conditioned problem and regularization methods are frequently used to improve its stability. Recently a new method, that provides a good compromise between precision and vertical resolution, was proposed to determine analytically the value of the regularization parameter. This method is applied for the first time to real measurements with its implementation in the operational retrieval code of the satellite limb-emission measurements of the MIPAS instrument and its performances are quantitatively analyzed. The adopted regularization improves the stability of the retrieval providing smooth profiles without major degradation of the vertical resolution. In the analyzed measurements the retrieval procedure provides a vertical resolution that, in the troposphere and low stratosphere, is smaller than the vertical field of view of the instrument

    Emissivity retrievals with FORUM's end-to-end simulator: challenges and recommendations

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    Spectral emissivity is a key property of the Earth's surface, of which only very few measurements exist so far in the far-infrared (FIR) spectral region, even though recent work has shown that the FIR is important for accurate modelling of the global climate. The European Space Agency's 9th Earth Explorer, FORUM (Far-infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring) will provide the first global spectrally resolved measurements of the Earth's top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) spectrum in the FIR. In clear-sky conditions with low water vapour content, these measurements will provide a unique opportunity to retrieve spectrally resolved FIR surface emissivity. In preparation for the FORUM mission with an expected launch in 2027, this study takes the first steps towards the development of an operational emissivity retrieval for FORUM by investigating the sensitivity of the emissivity product of a full spectrum optimal estimation retrieval method to different physical and operational parameters. The tool used for the sensitivity tests is the FORUM mission's end-to-end simulator. These tests show that the spectral emissivity of most surface types can be retrieved for dry scenes in the 350–600 cm−1 region, with an absolute uncertainty ranging from 0.005 to 0.01. In addition, the quality of the retrieval is quantified with respect to the precipitable water vapour content of the scene, and the uncertainty caused by the correlation of emissivity with surface temperature is investigated. Based on these investigations, a road map is recommended for the development of the operational emissivity product

    Validation and data characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide profiles observed by MIPAS and processed with Version 4.61 algorithm

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    The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements

    Accuracy of cytological examination of Tao brush endometrial sampling in diagnosing endometrial premalignancy and malignancy

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    Although Tao brush has become one of the most studied and used endometrial cytological samplers, concerns remain about the adequacy of the cytological sample compared with definitive histology. We aimed to assess accuracy of cytological examination from Tao brush sampling in diagnosing endometrial premalignancy and malignancy through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Seven electronic databases were searched from January 2000 to July 2021 for all studies which allowed assessment of accuracy of Tao brush in diagnosing endometrial premalignancy and malignancy. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+ and LR−), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) on summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Five studies with 774 patients were included. In diagnosing endometrial premalignancy and malignancy, cytological examination from Tao brush endometrial sampling showed pooled sensitivity of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90–0.98), specificity of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94), LR+ of 12.73 (95% CI, 3.94–41.18), LR− of 0.09 (95% CI, 0.05–0.18), DOR of 184.84 (95% CI, 24.37–1401.79), AUC of 0.9757 (standard error: 0.013). In conclusion, cytological examination from Tao brush seems to have a high diagnostic accuracy and might be proposed as both screening and diagnostic tool. However, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings

    CCl 4 distribution derived from MIPAS ESA v7 data: intercomparisons, trend, and lifetime estimation

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    Abstract. Atmospheric emissions of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are regulated by the Montreal Protocol due to its role as a strong ozone-depleting substance. The molecule has been the subject of recent increased interest as a consequence of the so-called mystery of CCl4, the discrepancy between atmospheric observations and reported production and consumption. Surface measurements of CCl4 atmospheric concentrations have declined at a rate almost 3 times lower than its lifetime-limited rate, suggesting persistent atmospheric emissions despite the ban. In this paper, we study CCl4 vertical and zonal distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (including the photolytic loss region, 70–20 hPa), its trend, and its stratospheric lifetime using measurements from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), which operated onboard the ENVISAT satellite from 2002 to 2012. Specifically, we use the MIPAS data product generated with Version 7 of the Level 2 algorithm operated by the European Space Agency.The CCl4 zonal means show features typical of long-lived species of anthropogenic origin that are destroyed primarily in the stratosphere, with larger quantities in the troposphere and a monotonic decrease with increasing altitude in the stratosphere. MIPAS CCl4 measurements have been compared with independent measurements from other satellite and balloon-borne remote sounders, showing a good agreement between the different datasets.CCl4 trends are calculated as a function of both latitude and altitude. Negative trends of about −10 to −15 pptv decade−1 (−10 to −30 % decade−1) are found at all latitudes in the upper troposphere–lower stratosphere region, apart from a region in the southern midlatitudes between 50 and 10 hPa where the trend is positive with values around 5–10 pptv decade−1 (15–20 % decade−1). At the lowest altitudes sounded by MIPAS, we find trends consistent with those determined on the basis of long-term ground-based measurements (−10 to −13 pptv decade−1). For higher altitudes, the trend shows a pronounced asymmetry between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and the magnitude of the decline rate increases with altitude. We use a simplified model assuming tracer–tracer linear correlations to determine CCl4 lifetime in the lower stratosphere. The calculation provides a global average lifetime of 47 (39–61) years, considering CFC-11 as the reference tracer. This value is consistent with the most recent literature result of 44 (36–58) years

    Comparison between Laparoscopic and Robotic Approach for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Endometrial Carcinoma Women

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    Robotic surgery has been approved as an alternative to laparoscopy to improve surgical outcomes. There is neither a consensus nor a systematic assessment of the literature about the superiority of the robotic approach over the laparoscopic one for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in endometrial carcinoma (EC) women. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to compare the laparoscopic and robotic approaches for SLN biopsy in EC patients. Five electronic databases were queried from their inception to May 2022 for peer-reviewed studies, comparing such approaches in SLN biopsy in EC patients. The rate of detected SLN, dissected SLN, intraoperative and postoperative complications, conversion to laparotomy, number of dissected SLN, and SLN identification and dissection time were compared between the laparoscopic and robotic approaches for SLN biopsy in EC patients. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated when possible. Two studies with 660 EC women (364 who had undergone laparoscopy, and 296 who had robotic surgery) were included. No assessed outcome showed significant differences between the two approaches. In conclusion, the laparoscopic and robotic approaches for SLN biopsy in EC patients appeared to not differ, in terms of SLN detection, intraoperative and postoperative complications, conversion to laparotomy, number of dissected SLN, and SLN identification and dissection time

    MIPAS level 2 operational analysis

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    The MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) instrument has been operating on-board the ENVISAT satellite since March 2002. In the first two years, it acquired in a nearly continuous manner high resolution (0.025 cm(-1) unapodized) emission spectra of the Earth's atmosphere at limb in the middle infrared region. This paper describes the level 2 near real-time (NRT) and off-line (OL) ESA processors that have been used to derive level 2 geophysical products from the calibrated and geolocated level 1b spectra. The design of the code and the analysis methodology have been driven by the requirements for NRT processing. This paper reviews the performance of the optimized retrieval strategy that has been implemented to achieve these requirements and provides estimated error budgets for the target products: pressure, temperature, O-3, H2O, CH4, HNO3, N2O and NO2, in the altitude measurement range from 6 to 68 km.From application to real MIPAS data, it was found that no change was needed in the developed code although an external algorithm was introduced to identify clouds with high opacity and to exclude affected spectra from the analysis. In addition, a number of updates were made to the set-up parameters and to auxiliary data. In particular, a new version of the MIPAS dedicated spectroscopic database was used and, in the OL analysis, the retrieval range was extended to reduce errors due to uncertainties in extrapolation of the profile outside the retrieval range and more stringent convergence criteria were implemented.A statistical analysis on the chi(2) values obtained in one year of measurements shows good agreement with the a priori estimate of the forward model errors. On the basis of the first two years of MIPAS measurements the estimates of the forward model and instrument errors are in general found to be conservative with excellent performance demonstrated for frequency calibration. It is noted that the total retrieval error is limited by forward model errors which make effectless a further reduction of random errors. However, such a reduction is within the capabilities of MIPAS measurements, which contain many more spectral signatures of the target species than what has currently been used. Further work is needed to reduce the amplitude of the forward model errors, so that the random error and the total error budget can be reduced accordingly.The importance of the Averaging kernels for a full characterization of the target products is underlined and the equations are provided for their practical applications

    The FORUM end-to-end simulator project: architecture and results

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    FORUM (Far-infrared Outgoing Radiation Understanding and Monitoring) will fly as the ninth ESA's Earth Explorer mission, and an end-to-end simulator (E2ES) has been developed as a support tool for the mission selection process and the subsequent development phases. The current status of the FORUM E2ES project is presented together with the characterization of the capabilities of a full physics retrieval code applied to FORUM data. We show how the instrument characteristics and the observed scene conditions impact on the spectrum measured by the instrument, accounting for the main sources of error related to the entire acquisition process, and the consequences on the retrieval algorithm. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous case studies are simulated in clear and cloudy conditions, validating the E2ES against appropriate well-established correlative codes. The performed tests show that the performance of the retrieval algorithm is compliant with the project requirements both in clear and cloudy conditions. The far-infrared (FIR) part of the FORUM spectrum is shown to be sensitive to surface emissivity, in dry atmospheric conditions, and to cirrus clouds, resulting in improved performance of the retrieval algorithm in these conditions. The retrieval errors increase with increasing the scene heterogeneity, both in terms of surface characteristics and in terms of fractional cloud cover of the scene
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