75 research outputs found

    CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cell Ontogeny and Preferential Migration to the Cecal Tonsils in Chickens

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    Thymic CD4+CD25+ cells have regulatory-T-cell-like properties in chickens. This study examined the ontogeny of CD4+CD25+ cells in the thymus and in peripheral compartments in chickens. CD4+CD25+ cells started to appear in the thymus at day 15 of incubation (E15), although at low percentages. Expressed as a percentage of CD4+ cells, CD4+CD25+ cells increased (P<0.01) from 1.7% at E20 to 7.3% at 0 d post-hatch (D0). CD4+CD25+ cells did not appear in the spleen or cecal tonsils of embryos. Expressed as a percentage of CD4+ cells, CD4+CD25+ cells increased (P<0.01) from 0% at D0 to 27% at D1 in cecal tonsils and from 0% at D0 to 11% at D1 in the spleen. Expressed as a percentage of all mononuclear cells, cecal tonsils at D1 had approximately 3.5-fold higher percentage of CD4+CD25+ cells than the spleen at D1. CD4+CD25+ cells from cecal tonsils of chicks at D1 were suppressive. CD4+CD25+ cells from D0 thymus, when injected back into MHC-compatible chicks, migrated to cecal tonsils and lungs and were detected until 10 d post-injection. CD4+CD25+ cells from cecal tonsils had a higher (P = 0.01) relative amount of CCR9 mRNA than CD4+CD25+ cells from the thymus. It could be concluded that in chickens CD4+CD25+ cells migrate from the thymus immediately post-hatch and preferentially colonize the gut associated lymphoid tissues. CD4+CD25+ cells' preferential migration to cecal tonsils is likely directed through the CCR9 pathway in chickens

    Application of Nutritional Immunology in the Mitigation of Economic and Production losses in the Poultry Industry Associated with Food-borne Pathogens, Coccidiosis, and Necrotic Enteritis.

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    Sub-therapeutic doses of antibiotics were used in poultry production since the 1950s for improved production, prophylaxis, and animal welfare. Extensive and indiscriminatory use of antibiotics led to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens of public health significance (Jones & Ricke, 2003). As per the United States Centre for Disease Control, more than 2.8 million infections in 2019 were caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Due to public health concerns, the use of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock production was prohibited by Sweden and Denmark in 1986 and 1998 respectively (Hammerum et al., 2007). The European Union banned the use of antibiotics except for coccidiostats and histomonostats in livestock production effective from January 1, 2006 (Anadón et al., 2018). In 2013, the United States Food and Drug Administration recommended voluntary regulation on the use of medically important antibiotics in food animal production (Sneeringer et al., 2015). Regulations on the use of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters led to the reemergence of poultry pathogens that were otherwise manageable. An increase in the consumer preference for organically raised and antibiotic-free poultry products has necessitated the need to find an alternative to antibiotics in commercial poultry production. Several potential alternatives are currently available in the market such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, phytobiotics, engineered peptides, enzymes, organic acids, egg yolk immunoglobulins, bacteriophages, vaccination, and nutraceuticals (Low et al., 2021). This review aims at introducing the recent progress in the field of nutritional immunology in the prevention and control of enteric diseases of poultry with special emphasis on food-borne pathogens, coccidiosis, and necrotic enteritis

    Novel Deep Learning Model for Predicting Wind Velocity and Power Estimation in Advanced INVELOX Wind Turbines

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    Wind energy is a renewable energy source that has grown rapidly in recent decades. This energy is converted into electricity using advanced INVELOX wind turbines. However, the wind velocity is critical, and predicting this velocity in real-time is challenging. As a result, a deep learning (DL) model has been developed to predict the velocity in advanced wind turbines using a novel enhanced Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) model. The LSTM enhancement is executed by employing the Black Widow optimization with Mayfly optimization in the Python platform as application software. The dataset has been prepared using Ansys Fluent fluid flow analysis. In addition to that, the wind turbine power generation was computed analytically. A subsonic wind tunnel test is also performed by employing a 3-Dimensional printed physical model to validate the simulation dataset for this innovative design. The proposed MFBW-LSTM model (Enhanced LSTM with BWO and MFO) predicts efficiently, with an accuracy of 95.34%. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed model is compared to LSTM, BW-LSTM, and MF-LSTM. Accuracy, MAE, MAPE, MSE, and RMSE are among the performance criteria the proposed DL model achieves efficiently. As a result, the proposed DL model is best suited for velocity prediction of an Advanced INVELOX wind turbine in various cross sections with high accuracy

    Determination of thermal constant and development threshold of Bihar hairy caterpillar, Spilarctia obliqua Walker

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    Effect of six constant temperatures viz., 18±1, 21±1, 24±1, 27±1, 30±1 and 33±10C was studied on the egg hatchability, larval pupal development and adult survival of Spilarctia obliqua. Development rate of egg, larva and pupa gradually increased with increase in temperature, while total developmental period decreased. Mean developmental period of the pest decreased from 93.73 days at 18±10C to 31.20 at 33±10C. The lowest and the highest temperatures at which no development took place were found to be 12±10C and 39±10C, respectively. Regression equations between development rate and temperature were found to be Y= 0.0189 X -0.1998 (R2=0.88) for egg, Y=0.00122 X -0.0248 (R2=0.84) for small larva (1-3rd instar), Y=0.0058 X -0.0675 (R2=0.76) for large larva (4-6th instar), Y=0.0074 X-0.1075 (R2=0.94) for pupa and Y=0.0142 X-0.4363 (R2=0.79) for adults. Developmental threshold were determined to be 10.57, 11.27, 11.55, 15.28 and 10.92oC for egg, small larva, large larva, pupa, and adult respectively with corresponding thermal constant being 52.91, 344.82, 243.90, 142.85 and 70.42 degree days (DD). Thermal constant to complete a generation was found to be 854.90 DD. This was the first studies on this aspects, these estimated thermal thresholds and degree days could be used to predict the S. obliqua activity in the field for their effective management through pest forecasting

    Beyond protein synthesis: the emerging role of arginine in poultry nutrition and host-microbe interactions

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    Arginine is a functional amino acid essential for various physiological processes in poultry. The dietary essentiality of arginine in poultry stems from the absence of the enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthase-I. The specific requirement for arginine in poultry varies based on several factors, such as age, dietary factors, and physiological status. Additionally, arginine absorption and utilization are also influenced by the presence of antagonists. However, dietary interventions can mitigate the effect of these factors affecting arginine utilization. In poultry, arginine is utilized by four enzymes, namely, inducible nitric oxide synthase arginase, arginine decarboxylase and arginine: glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). The intermediates and products of arginine metabolism by these enzymes mediate the different physiological functions of arginine in poultry. The most studied function of arginine in humans, as well as poultry, is its role in immune response. Arginine exerts immunomodulatory functions primarily through the metabolites nitric oxide (NO), ornithine, citrulline, and polyamines, which take part in inflammation or the resolution of inflammation. These properties of arginine and arginine metabolites potentiate its use as a nutraceutical to prevent the incidence of enteric diseases in poultry. Furthermore, arginine is utilized by the poultry gut microbiota, the metabolites of which might have important implications for gut microbial composition, immune regulation, metabolism, and overall host health. This comprehensive review provides insights into the multifaceted roles of arginine and arginine metabolites in poultry nutrition and wellbeing, with particular emphasis on the potential of arginine in immune regulation and microbial homeostasis in poultry

    Assessment of trace metal contamination in a historical freshwater canal (Buckingham Canal), Chennai, India

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    The present study was done to assess the sources and the major processes controlling the trace metal distribution in sediments of Buckingham Canal. Based on the observed geochemical variations, the sediments are grouped as South Buckingham Canal and North Buckingham Canal sediments (SBC and NBC, respectively). SBC sediments show enrichment in Fe, Ti, Mn, Cr, V, Mo, and As concentrations, while NBC sediments show enrichment in Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Hg. The calculated Chemical Index of Alteration and Chemical Index of Weathering values for all the sediments are relatively higher than the North American Shale Composite and Upper Continental Crust but similar to Post-Archaean Average Shale, and suggest a source area with moderate weathering. Overall, SBC sediments are highly enriched in Mo, Zn, Cu, and Hg (geoaccumulation index (Igeo) class 4– 6), whereas NBC sediments are enriched in Sn, Cu,Zn, and Hg (Igeo class 4–6). Cu, Ni, and Cr show higher than Effects-Range Median values and hence the biological adverse effect of these metals is 20%; Zn, which accounts for 50%, in the NBC sediments, has a more biological adverse effect than other metalsfound in these sediments. The calculated Igeo, Enrichment Factor, and Contamination Factor values indicate that Mo, Hg, Sn, Cu, and Zn are highly enriched in the Buckingham Canal sediments, suggesting the rapid urban and industrial development of Chennai MetropolitanCity have negatively influenced on the surrounding aquatic ecosystem

    Global, regional, and national burden of disorders affecting the nervous system, 1990–2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021

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    BackgroundDisorders affecting the nervous system are diverse and include neurodevelopmental disorders, late-life neurodegeneration, and newly emergent conditions, such as cognitive impairment following COVID-19. Previous publications from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor Study estimated the burden of 15 neurological conditions in 2015 and 2016, but these analyses did not include neurodevelopmental disorders, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-11, or a subset of cases of congenital, neonatal, and infectious conditions that cause neurological damage. Here, we estimate nervous system health loss caused by 37 unique conditions and their associated risk factors globally, regionally, and nationally from 1990 to 2021.MethodsWe estimated mortality, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs), by age and sex in 204 countries and territories, from 1990 to 2021. We included morbidity and deaths due to neurological conditions, for which health loss is directly due to damage to the CNS or peripheral nervous system. We also isolated neurological health loss from conditions for which nervous system morbidity is a consequence, but not the primary feature, including a subset of congenital conditions (ie, chromosomal anomalies and congenital birth defects), neonatal conditions (ie, jaundice, preterm birth, and sepsis), infectious diseases (ie, COVID-19, cystic echinococcosis, malaria, syphilis, and Zika virus disease), and diabetic neuropathy. By conducting a sequela-level analysis of the health outcomes for these conditions, only cases where nervous system damage occurred were included, and YLDs were recalculated to isolate the non-fatal burden directly attributable to nervous system health loss. A comorbidity correction was used to calculate total prevalence of all conditions that affect the nervous system combined.FindingsGlobally, the 37 conditions affecting the nervous system were collectively ranked as the leading group cause of DALYs in 2021 (443 million, 95% UI 378–521), affecting 3·40 billion (3·20–3·62) individuals (43·1%, 40·5–45·9 of the global population); global DALY counts attributed to these conditions increased by 18·2% (8·7–26·7) between 1990 and 2021. Age-standardised rates of deaths per 100 000 people attributed to these conditions decreased from 1990 to 2021 by 33·6% (27·6–38·8), and age-standardised rates of DALYs attributed to these conditions decreased by 27·0% (21·5–32·4). Age-standardised prevalence was almost stable, with a change of 1·5% (0·7–2·4). The ten conditions with the highest age-standardised DALYs in 2021 were stroke, neonatal encephalopathy, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, diabetic neuropathy, meningitis, epilepsy, neurological complications due to preterm birth, autism spectrum disorder, and nervous system cancer.InterpretationAs the leading cause of overall disease burden in the world, with increasing global DALY counts, effective prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation strategies for disorders affecting the nervous system are needed
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