24 research outputs found

    Women’s access to and control over land in the current land administration system in two rural kebeles in Ada’a Woreda of Oromia Region

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    The study is designed to explore the status of rural women in access to and control over land in the current land administration system in two rural Kebeles in East Shewa Zone Ada’a Woreda of Oromia region on smallholder farmers’ landholding registration. The Ormia National Regional State Rural Land Administration and Use Proclamation and its implementation procedure are examined from a gender perspective in terms of ensuring rural women’s land holding rights and control they have over land. Historical overview on the land question in Ethiopia revealed that tenure systems evolved through historical periods. Land remained under men’s control throughout history and men’s control over land was strengthened by the rural land reform carried out by the Derg. This tenure reform applied rural land distribution using households as unit for rural land allocation and women were disadvantaged as most rural households were headed by men. The Oromia rural land proclamation is not discriminatory on basis of sex. However, policy gaps are evident in addressing women specific issues such as issues of FHHs and women under polygamous marriages. Gaps also exist between policy and implementation. Customary laws and practices have serious impacts on women’s land rights at the level of implementation. The research applied both quantitative and qualitative methods in view of feminist research methodology to properly address issues from a gender perspective. Survey of 318 households was conducted administering questionnaires in the quantitative method. The qualitative method applied was interviews with relevant Woreda office and Kebele LACs, focus group discussions with rural women, case stories and observation. Triangulation method is applied in data collection, data presentation and in analysis of findings. Study findings reveal that women’s access rights to land is less equal than legally provided. This study evidences gaps between policy and implementation. Customary laws and traditional practices generally have impacts on land access rights of single/unmarried, divorced, widowed women and on access rights of women in polygamous marriages. Women’s control over land is not efficiently addressed by the regional rural land policy. This is a significant policy drawback as women’s equal rights on land could not be achieved without gaining control over land. The land administration system in general and the land registration process in particular has not considered women’s participation in community activities and decision-making. Women are not represented in LACs and Sub-Committees in both Kebeles. Study findings indicate absence of autonomous institution as gap in addressing women’s issues in the land administration system. This study also revealed loose linkages between the rural land policy and other regional legislations like the regional family law which provides women’s equal rights on land in marriage and on its abandonment. This study forwards recommendation to address gender gaps identified to ensure women’s equal access to and control over land in the study area. The Oromia rural land proclamation needs revision from a gender perspective to address women’s specific issues and the land administration system should consider women’s participation in the process, their contribution to the system as well as their equal benefits from policy outcomes

    Energetic High-Nitrogen Compounds: 5‑(Trinitromethyl)‑2<i>H</i>‑tetrazole and -tetrazolates, Preparation, Characterization, and Conversion into 5‑(Dinitromethyl)tetrazoles

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    A convenient access to 5-(trinitromethyl)-2<i>H</i>-tetrazole (HTNTz) has been developed, based on the exhaustive nitration of 1<i>H</i>-tetrazole-5-acetic acid, which was prepared from ethyl cyanoacetate and HN<sub>3</sub> in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction, followed by basic hydrolysis. HTNTz was converted into the ammonium, guanidinium, rubidium, cesium, copper, and silver 5-(trinitromethyl)-2<i>H</i>-tetrazolates. In addition, the ammonia adducts of the copper and silver salts were isolated. The reaction of HTNTz with hydrazine and hydroxylamine resulted in the formation of hydrazinium 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazolate and hydroxylammonium 5-(dinitromethyl)-1<i>H</i>-tetrazolate, respectively. Acid treatment of both 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazolates resulted in the isolation of 5-(dinitromethylene)-4,5-dihydro-1<i>H</i>-tetrazole, which was converted into potassium 5-(dinitromethyl)-1<i>H</i>-tetrazolate by reaction with K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>. All prepared compounds were fully characterized by <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>13</sup>C, <sup>14</sup>N, and <sup>15</sup>N NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure determination. Initial safety testing (impact, friction, and electrostatic sensitivity) and thermal stability measurements (differential thermal analysis, DTA) were also carried out. The 5-(trinitromethyl) and 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazoles are highly energetic materials that explode upon impact or heating

    Energetic High-Nitrogen Compounds: 5‑(Trinitromethyl)‑2<i>H</i>‑tetrazole and -tetrazolates, Preparation, Characterization, and Conversion into 5‑(Dinitromethyl)tetrazoles

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    A convenient access to 5-(trinitromethyl)-2<i>H</i>-tetrazole (HTNTz) has been developed, based on the exhaustive nitration of 1<i>H</i>-tetrazole-5-acetic acid, which was prepared from ethyl cyanoacetate and HN<sub>3</sub> in a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction, followed by basic hydrolysis. HTNTz was converted into the ammonium, guanidinium, rubidium, cesium, copper, and silver 5-(trinitromethyl)-2<i>H</i>-tetrazolates. In addition, the ammonia adducts of the copper and silver salts were isolated. The reaction of HTNTz with hydrazine and hydroxylamine resulted in the formation of hydrazinium 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazolate and hydroxylammonium 5-(dinitromethyl)-1<i>H</i>-tetrazolate, respectively. Acid treatment of both 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazolates resulted in the isolation of 5-(dinitromethylene)-4,5-dihydro-1<i>H</i>-tetrazole, which was converted into potassium 5-(dinitromethyl)-1<i>H</i>-tetrazolate by reaction with K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>. All prepared compounds were fully characterized by <sup>1</sup>H, <sup>13</sup>C, <sup>14</sup>N, and <sup>15</sup>N NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystal structure determination. Initial safety testing (impact, friction, and electrostatic sensitivity) and thermal stability measurements (differential thermal analysis, DTA) were also carried out. The 5-(trinitromethyl) and 5-(dinitromethyl)­tetrazoles are highly energetic materials that explode upon impact or heating

    Increasing Sensitivity in Determining Chemical Shifts in One Dimensional Lorentzian NMR Spectra

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    An algorithm is presented for one-dimensional NMR systems that employs nonlinear, non-Fourier methods to convert noisy time-dependent free induction decay (FID) data to a denoised frequency spectrum that gives reliable chemical shifts and coupling constants when the spectrum is Lorentzian. It is formulated in a way that increases frequency sensitivity and resolution and, for nuclei of low natural abundance, potentially avoids enrichment totally or in part. The algorithm should also be of use in analytical chemistry where enrichment is not possible. In effect, the useful limit of detection is significantly lowered. The algorithm uses new “phasing” and “feature stability upon accumulation” methods to reliably separate signal from noise at low signal-to-noise ratios where the Fourier spectrum requires many more transients to be definitive as to what is signal and what is noise. The long-standing problem of “false features” that plagued many prior attempts to employ nonlinear methods is thereby resolved for Lorentzian spectra. Examples are reported, and the limitations of the algorithm are discussed

    Energetic Bis(3,5-dinitro‑1<i>H</i>‑1,2,4-triazolyl)dihydro- and dichloroborates and Bis(5-nitro‑2<i>H</i>‑tetrazolyl)‑, Bis(5-(trinitromethyl)‑2<i>H</i>‑tetrazolyl)‑, and Bis(5-(fluorodinitromethyl)‑2<i>H</i>‑tetrazolyl)dihydroborate

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    Salts of bis­(3,5-dinitro-1<i>H</i>-1,2,4-triazolyl)­dihydro- and dichloroborate and bis­(5-nitro-2<i>H</i>-tetrazolyl)-, bis­(5-trinitromethyl-2<i>H</i>-tetrazolyl)-, and bis­(5-fluorodinitromethyl-2<i>H</i>-tetrazolyl)­dihydroborate anions have been synthesized by the treatment of hydroborates or chloroborates with the corresponding nitroazoles or nitroazolates, respectively. Alkali-metal salts of these dihydroborates are energetic and can be shock-sensitive, while salts with larger organic cations, such as NMe<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>, PPh<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>, or (Ph<sub>3</sub>P)<sub>2</sub>N<sup>+</sup>, are less sensitive. Poly­(nitroazolyl)­borates are promising candidates for a new class of environmentally benign energetic materials and high-oxygen carriers

    Binary Group 15 Polyazides. Structural Characterization of [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>4</sub>]<sup>−</sup>, [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub>]<sup>2–</sup>, [bipy·Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub>]<sup>2–</sup>, [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>6</sub>]<sup>3–</sup>, bipy·As(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, bipy·Sb(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, and [(bipy)<sub>2</sub>·Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>2</sub> and on the Lone Pair Activation of Valence Electrons

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    The binary group 15 polyazides As(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, Sb(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, and Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> were stabilized by either anion or donor−acceptor adduct formation. Crystal structures are reported for [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>4</sub>]<sup>–</sup>, [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub>]<sup>2–</sup>, [bipy·Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub>]<sup>2–</sup>, [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>6</sub>]<sup>3–</sup>, bipy·As(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, bipy·Sb(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, and [(bipy)<sub>2</sub>·Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>2</sub>. The lone valence electron pair on the central atom of these pnictogen(+III) compounds can be either sterically active or inactive. The [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub>]<sup>2–</sup> anion possesses a sterically active lone pair and a monomeric pseudo-octahedral structure with a coordination number of 6, whereas its 2,2′-bipyridine adduct exhibits a pseudo-monocapped trigonal prismatic structure with CN 7 and a sterically inactive lone pair. Because of the high oxidizing power of Bi(+V), reactions aimed at Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>5</sub> and [Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>6</sub>]<sup>–</sup> resulted in the reduction to bismuth(+III) compounds by [N<sub>3</sub>]<sup>–</sup>. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern of Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> was recorded at 298 K and is distinct from that calculated for Sb(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> from its single-crystal data at 223 K. The [(bipy)<sub>2</sub>·Bi(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>]<sub>2</sub> adduct is dimeric and derived from two BiN<sub>8</sub> square antiprisms sharing an edge consisting of two μ<sup>1,1</sup>-bridging N<sub>3</sub> ligands and with bismuth having CN 8 and a sterically inactive lone pair. The novel bipy·As(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> and bipy·Sb(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub> adducts are monomeric and isostructural and contain a sterically active lone pair on their central atom and a CN of 6. A systematic quantum chemical analysis of the structures of these polyazides suggests that the M06-2X density functional is well suited for the prediction of the steric activity of lone pairs in main-group chemistry. Furthermore, it was found that the solid-state structures can strongly differ from those of the free gas-phase species or those in solutions and that lone pairs that are sterically inactive in a chemical surrounding can become activated in the free isolated species

    Syntheses of Diphenylaminodiazidophosphane and Diphenylaminofluoroazidophosphane

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    Diphenylaminodiazidophosphane (C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>)<sub>2</sub>NP­(N<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> was synthesized from the corresponding dihalides (C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>)<sub>2</sub>NPX<sub>2</sub> (X = F, Cl) and (CH<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>SiN<sub>3</sub>, and was characterized by vibrational and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. The intermediate compound (C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>5</sub>)<sub>2</sub>NPF­(N<sub>3</sub>) was also observed by NMR spectroscopy in solution. Some physical properties and reactions of all these compounds are discussed
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