146 research outputs found

    Risk of serious skin disorders among users of oral antifungals: a population-based study

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    BACKGROUND: Serious skin disorders have been associated with the use of oral antifungals in a number of case reports and series of cases. However the incidence of these disorders remains unknown. METHODS: We estimated the risk of serious skin disorders in a cohort of users of oral antifungals identified in the general population of the General Practice Research Database in the UK. The cohort included 61,858 patients, 20 to 79 years old, who had received at least one prescription for either oral fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, or terbinafine. RESULTS: The background rate of serious cutaneous adverse reactions (the one corresponding to non use of oral antifungals) was 3.9 per 10,000 person-years (95% CI 2.9–5.2). Incidence rates for current use were 15.4 per 10,000 person-years (1.9–55.7) for itraconazole, 11.1 (3.0–28.5) for terbinafine, 10.4 (1.3–37.5) for fluconazole, and 4.6 (0.1–25.8) for griseofulvin. Itraconazole was the antifungal associated with the highest relative risk, 3.9 (0.5–15.0), when compared to the risk among non users, followed by terbinafine and fluconazole, with relative risks of 2.8 (0.7–7.8) and 2.6 (0.3–10.1), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cutaneous disorders associated with the use of oral antifungals in this study were all of mild severity and that the risk associated with the use of oral antifungals was slightly higher than the risk in non-users. The safety profile of terbinafine regarding cutaneous disorders is similar to other antifungals and in the very low range of risks associated with other drugs

    Bullous pemphigoid and comorbidities: a case-control study in Portuguese patients

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    BACKGROUND: Although rare, bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease. Recent studies have shown that patients with bullous pemphigoid are more likely to have neurological and psychiatric diseases, particularly prior to the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid. OBJECTIVE: The aims were: (i) to evaluate the demographic and clinical features of bullous pemphigoid from a database of patients at a Portuguese university hospital and (ii) to compare the prevalence of comorbid conditions before the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid with a control group. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with bullous pemphigoid were enrolled in the study. They were compared with 176 age- and gender-matched controls, which also had the same inpatient to outpatient ratio, but no history of bullous or cutaneous malignant disease. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to calculate odds ratios for specific comorbid diseases. RESULTS: At least one neurologic diagnosis was present in 55.8% of BP patients compared with 20.5% controls (p<0.001). Comparing cases to controls, stroke was seen in 35.1 vs. 6.8%, OR 8.10 (3.80-17.25); dementia in 37.7 vs. 11.9%, OR 5.25 (2.71-10.16); and Parkinson's disease in 5.2 vs. 1.1%, OR 4.91 (0.88-27.44). Using multivariate analysis, all diseases except Parkinson's retained their association with BP. Patients under systemic treatment were eight times more likely to have complications than those treated with topical steroids (p< 0.017). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study substantiate the association between BP and neurological diseases. In addition, they highlight the potential complications associated with the treatment of BP

    Valproic acid and fatalities in children: a review of individual case safety reports in VigiBase

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    Introduction Valproic acid is an effective first line drug for the treatment of epilepsy. Hepatotoxicity is a rare and potentially fatal adverse reaction for this medicine. Objective Firstly to characterise valproic acid reports on children with fatal outcome and secondly to determine reporting over time of hepatotoxicity with fatal outcome. Methods Individual case safety reports (ICSRs) for children ≀17 years with valproic acid and fatal outcome were retrieved from the WHO Global ICSR database, VigiBase, in June 2013. Reports were classified into hepatotoxic reactions or other reactions. Shrinkage observed-to-expected ratios were used to explore the relative reporting trend over time and for patient age. The frequency of polytherapy, i.e. reports with more than one antiepileptic medicine, was investigated. Results There have been 268 ICSRs with valproic acid and fatal outcome in children, reported from 25 countries since 1977. A total of 156 fatalities were reported with hepatotoxicity, which has been continuously and disproportionally reported over time. There were 31 fatalities with pancreatitis. Other frequently reported events were coma/encephalopathy, seizures, respiratory disorders and coagulopathy. Hepatotoxicity was disproportionally and most commonly reported in children aged 6 years and under (104/156 reports) but affected children of all ages. Polytherapy was significantly more frequently reported for valproic acid with fatal outcome (58%) compared with non-fatal outcome (34%). Conclusion Hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. The risk appears to be greatest in young children (6 years and below) but can occur at any age. Polytherapy is commonly reported and seems to be a risk factor for hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis and other serious adverse drug reactions with valproic acid

    Association of HLA-B*5801 allele and allopurinol-induced stevens johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background: Despite some studies suggesting a possible association between human leukocyte antigen, HLA-B*5801 and allopurinol induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), the evidence of association and its magnitude remain inconclusive. This study aims to systematically review and meta-analyze the association between HLA-B*5801 allele and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN.Methods: A comprehensive search was performed in databases including MEDLINE, Pre-MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA), CINAHL, PsychInfo, the WHO International, Clinical Trial Registry, and ClinicalTrial.gov from their inceptions to June 2011. Only studies investigating association between HLA-B*5801 with allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN were included. All studies were extracted by two independent authors. The primary analysis was the carrier frequency of HLA-B*5801 comparison between allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN cases and each comparative group. The pooled odds ratios were calculated using a random effect model.Results: A total of 4 studies with 55 SJS/TEN cases and 678 matched-controls (allopurinol-tolerant control) was identified, while 5 studies with 69 SJS/TEN cases and 3378 population-controls (general population) were found. SJS/TEN cases were found to be significantly associated with HLA-B*5801 allele in both groups of studies with matched-control (OR 96.60, 95%CI 24.49-381.00, p < 0.001) and population-control (OR 79.28, 95%CI 41.51-151.35, p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis for Asian and Non-Asian population yielded similar findings.Conclusion: We found a strong and significant association between HLA-B*5801 and allopurinol-induced SJS/TEN. Therefore, HLA-B*5801 allele screening may be considered in patients who will be treated with allopurinol

    Incidence, presenting features, and diagnosis of cicatrising conjunctivitis in the United Kingdom

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    Cicatrising conjunctival disorders are uncommon, and are difficult to diagnose and manage. This study was designed to assess the annual incidence and underlying diagnosis of patients with cicatrising conjunctivitis (CC) within the United Kingdom

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis and Stevens-Johnson syndrome

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    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS) are severe adverse cutaneous drug reactions that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. Both are rare, with TEN and SJS affecting approximately 1or 2/1,000,000 annually, and are considered medical emergencies as they are potentially fatal. They are characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typically hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and more or less severe epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. Currently, TEN and SJS are considered to be two ends of a spectrum of severe epidermolytic adverse cutaneous drug reactions, differing only by their extent of skin detachment. Drugs are assumed or identified as the main cause of SJS/TEN in most cases, but Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Herpes simplex virus infections are well documented causes alongside rare cases in which the aetiology remains unknown. Several drugs are at "high" risk of inducing TEN/SJS including: Allopurinol, Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and other sulfonamide-antibiotics, aminopenicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones, carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and NSAID's of the oxicam-type. Genetic susceptibility to SJS and TEN is likely as exemplified by the strong association observed in Han Chinese between a genetic marker, the human leukocyte antigen HLA-B*1502, and SJS induced by carbamazepine. Diagnosis relies mainly on clinical signs together with the histological analysis of a skin biopsy showing typical full-thickness epidermal necrolysis due to extensive keratinocyte apoptosis. Differential diagnosis includes linear IgA dermatosis and paraneoplastic pemphigus, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), disseminated fixed bullous drug eruption and staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). Due to the high risk of mortality, management of patients with SJS/TEN requires rapid diagnosis, evaluation of the prognosis using SCORTEN, identification and interruption of the culprit drug, specialized supportive care ideally in an intensive care unit, and consideration of immunomodulating agents such as high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. SJS and TEN are severe and life-threatening. The average reported mortality rate of SJS is 1-5%, and of TEN is 25-35%; it can be even higher in elderly patients and those with a large surface area of epidermal detachment. More than 50% of patients surviving TEN suffer from long-term sequelae of the disease