38 research outputs found

    Ordering Metro Lines by Block Crossings

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    A problem that arises in drawings of transportation networks is to minimize the number of crossings between different transportation lines. While this can be done efficiently under specific constraints, not all solutions are visually equivalent. We suggest merging crossings into block crossings, that is, crossings of two neighboring groups of consecutive lines. Unfortunately, minimizing the total number of block crossings is NP-hard even for very simple graphs. We give approximation algorithms for special classes of graphs and an asymptotically worst-case optimal algorithm for block crossings on general graphs. That is, we bound the number of block crossings that our algorithm needs and construct worst-case instances on which the number of block crossings that is necessary in any solution is asymptotically the same as our bound

    Approximating the Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement Problem

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    We study a graph reordering problem motivated by compressing massive graphs such as social networks and inverted indexes. Given a graph, G = (V, E), the Minimum Logarithmic Arrangement problem is to find a permutation, ?, of the vertices that minimizes ?_{(u, v) ? E} (1 + ? lg |?(u) - ?(v)| ?). This objective has been shown to be a good measure of how many bits are needed to encode the graph if the adjacency list of each vertex is encoded using relative positions of two consecutive neighbors under the ? order in the list rather than using absolute indices or node identifiers, which requires at least lg n bits per edge. We show the first non-trivial approximation factor for this problem by giving a polynomial time ?(log k)-approximation algorithm for graphs with treewidth k

    Edge Routing with Ordered Bundles

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    Edge bundling reduces the visual clutter in a drawing of a graph by uniting the edges into bundles. We propose a method of edge bundling drawing each edge of a bundle separately as in metro-maps and call our method ordered bundles. To produce aesthetically looking edge routes it minimizes a cost function on the edges. The cost function depends on the ink, required to draw the edges, the edge lengths, widths and separations. The cost also penalizes for too many edges passing through narrow channels by using the constrained Delaunay triangulation. The method avoids unnecessary edge-node and edge-edge crossings. To draw edges with the minimal number of crossings and separately within the same bundle we develop an efficient algorithm solving a variant of the metro-line crossing minimization problem. In general, the method creates clear and smooth edge routes giving an overview of the global graph structure, while still drawing each edge separately and thus enabling local analysis

    On Semantic Word Cloud Representation

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    We study the problem of computing semantic-preserving word clouds in which semantically related words are close to each other. While several heuristic approaches have been described in the literature, we formalize the underlying geometric algorithm problem: Word Rectangle Adjacency Contact (WRAC). In this model each word is associated with rectangle with fixed dimensions, and the goal is to represent semantically related words by ensuring that the two corresponding rectangles touch. We design and analyze efficient polynomial-time algorithms for some variants of the WRAC problem, show that several general variants are NP-hard, and describe a number of approximation algorithms. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate that our theoretically-sound algorithms outperform the early heuristics

    On Families of Planar DAGs with Constant Stack Number

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    A kk-stack layout (or kk-page book embedding) of a graph consists of a total order of the vertices, and a partition of the edges into kk sets of non-crossing edges with respect to the vertex order. The stack number of a graph is the minimum kk such that it admits a kk-stack layout. In this paper we study a long-standing problem regarding the stack number of planar directed acyclic graphs (DAGs), for which the vertex order has to respect the orientation of the edges. We investigate upper and lower bounds on the stack number of several families of planar graphs: We prove constant upper bounds on the stack number of single-source and monotone outerplanar DAGs and of outerpath DAGs, and improve the constant upper bound for upward planar 3-trees. Further, we provide computer-aided lower bounds for upward (outer-) planar DAGs