6,425 research outputs found

### Using Whole-Group Metabolic Rate and Behaviour to Assess the Energetics of Courtship in Red-Sided Garter Snakes

Reproductive effort is an important aspect of life history as reproductive success is arguably the most important component of fitness. Males tend to compete for access to females and, in the process, expend their energetic capital on mate searching, maleemale competition and courtship rather than directly on offspring. Red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, are an exceptional model for studying energetic costs of courtship and mating as they fast during the spring mating season, which segregates the cost of energy acquisition from the cost of courtship and mating. However, measuring an individual male\u27s metabolic rate during courtship is complicated by the fact that male courtship behaviour in redsided garter snakes is dependent on both the detection of a female sexual attractiveness pheromone and on facilitated courtship (i.e. vigorous courtship is only exhibited in the presence of other males). Thus, traditional techniques of placing a mask over the head of individuals would prevent male courtship behaviour, and single animals placed in a flow-through chamber would not yield ecologically realistic levels of courtship, which are only seen in the context of a mating aggregation in this species. Because of these difficulties, we placed groups of males in a flow-through metabolic chamber together with a single female whose respiratory gases were vented outside the chamber to yield a whole-group metabolic rate during competitive courtship. We also measured the standard metabolic rates (SMR) of the males individually for comparison with active metabolic rates. Conservative estimates of peak group metabolic rates during courtship are 10e20 times higher than resting group metabolic rate, which was 1.88 times higher than SMR. These measurements, coupled with the fact that these males are aphagous during the breeding, indicates that costs of courtship may be high for males and has implications for the male mating tactics in this system

### Front Propagation in the Pearling Instability of Tubular Vesicles

Recently Bar-Ziv and Moses discovered a dynamical shape transformation
induced in cylindrical lipid bilayer vesicles by the action of laser tweezers.
We develop a hydrodynamic theory of fluid bilayers in interaction with the
surrounding water and argue that the effect of the laser is to induce a sudden
tension in the membrane. We refine our previous analysis to account for the
fact that the shape transformation is not uniform but propagates outward from
the laser trap. Applying the marginal stability criterion to this situation
gives us an improved prediction for the selected initial wavelength and a new
prediction for the propagation velocity, both in rough agreement with the
experimental values. For example, a tubule of initial radius 0.7\micron\ has a
predicted initial sinusoidal perturbation in its diameter with wavelength
5.5\micron, as observed. The perturbation propagates as a front with the
qualitatively correct front velocity a bit less than 100\micron/sec. In
particular we show why this velocity is initially constant, as observed, and so
much smaller than the natural scale set by the tension. We also predict that
the front velocity should increase linearly with laser power. Finally we
introduce an approximate hydrodynamic model applicable to the fully nonlinear
regime. This model exhibits propagating fronts as well as fully-developed
``pearled" vesicles similar to those seen in the experiments.Comment: 42 pages, 6 eps figures included with text in uuencoded file, ps file
available from ftp://dept.physics.upenn.edu/pub/Nelson/pearl_propagation.ps
submitted to Journal de Physiqu

### Study of large adaptive arrays for space technology applications

The research in large adaptive antenna arrays for space technology applications is reported. Specifically two tasks were considered. The first was a system design study for accurate determination of the positions and the frequencies of sources radiating from the earth's surface that could be used for the rapid location of people or vehicles in distress. This system design study led to a nonrigid array about 8 km in size with means for locating the array element positions, receiving signals from the earth and determining the source locations and frequencies of the transmitting sources. It is concluded that this system design is feasible, and satisfies the desired objectives. The second task was an experiment to determine the largest earthbound array which could simulate a spaceborne experiment. It was determined that an 800 ft array would perform indistinguishably in both locations and it is estimated that one several times larger also would serve satisfactorily. In addition the power density spectrum of the phase difference fluctuations across a large array was measured. It was found that the spectrum falls off approximately as f to the minus 5/2 power

### Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

A conceptual design analysis is performed on a single engine V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack concept powered by a series flow tandem fan propulsion system. Forward and aft mounted fans have independent flow paths for V/STOL operation and series flow in high speed flight. Mission, combat and V/STOL performance is calculated. Detailed aerodynamic estimates are made and aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the configuration and estimation methods identified. A wind tunnel research program is developed to resolve principal uncertainties and establish a data base for the baseline configuration and parametric variations

### Inverse problems in the modeling of vibrations of flexible beams

The formulation and solution of inverse problems for the estimation of parameters which describe damping and other dynamic properties in distributed models for the vibration of flexible structures is considered. Motivated by a slewing beam experiment, the identification of a nonlinear velocity dependent term which models air drag damping in the Euler-Bernoulli equation is investigated. Galerkin techniques are used to generate finite dimensional approximations. Convergence estimates and numerical results are given. The modeling of, and related inverse problems for the dynamics of a high pressure hose line feeding a gas thruster actuator at the tip of a cantilevered beam are then considered. Approximation and convergence are discussed and numerical results involving experimental data are presented

### Using Variational Eigensolvers on Low-End Hardware to Find the Ground State Energy of Simple Molecules

Key properties of physical systems can be described by the eigenvalues of
matrices that represent the system. Computational algorithms that determine the
eigenvalues of these matrices exist, but they generally suffer from a loss of
performance as the matrix grows in size. This process can be expanded to
quantum computation to find the eigenvalues with better performance than the
classical algorithms. One application of such an eigenvalue solver is to
determine energy levels of a molecule given a matrix representation of its
Hamiltonian using the variational principle. Using a variational quantum
eigensolver, we determine the ground state energies of different molecules. We
focus on the choice of optimization strategy for a Qiskit simulator on low-end
hardware. The benefits of several different optimizers were weighed in terms of
accuracy in comparison to an analytic classical solution as well as code
efficiency

### Microbubble Cavitation Imaging

Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potential for therapeutic applications such as sonothrombolysis (STL) in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (moderate oscillations, stable cavitation, and inertial cavitation) and activity level in and around a treatment area. Acoustic passive cavitation detectors (PCDs) have been used to this end but do not provide spatial information. This paper presents a prototype of a 2-D cavitation imager capable of producing images of the dominant cavitation state and activity level in a region of interest. Similar to PCDs, the cavitation imaging described here is based on the spectral analysis of the acoustic signal radiated by the cavitating microbubbles: ultraharmonics of the excitation frequency indicate stable cavitation, whereas elevated noise bands indicate inertial cavitation; the absence of both indicates moderate oscillations. The prototype system is a modified commercially available ultrasound scanner with a sector imaging probe. The lateral resolution of the system is 1.5 mm at a focal depth of 3 cm, and the axial resolution is 3 cm for a therapy pulse length of 20 mu s. The maximum frame rate of the prototype is 2 Hz. The system has been used for assessing and mapping the relative importance of the different cavitation states of a microbubble contrast agent. In vitro (tissue-mimicking flow phantom) and in vivo (heart, liver, and brain of two swine) results for cavitation states and their changes as a function of acoustic amplitude are presented

### Effects Of Attenuation And Thrombus Age On The Success Of Ultrasound And Microbubble-Mediated Thrombus Dissolution

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of applied mechanical index, incident angle, attenuation and thrombus age on the ability of 2-D vs. 3-D diagnostic ultrasound and microbubbles to dissolve thrombi. A total of 180 occlusive porcine arterial thrombi of varying age (3 or 6 h) were examined in a flow system. A tissue-mimicking phantom of varying thickness (5 to 10 cm) was placed over the thrombosed vessel and the 2-D or 3-D diagnostic transducer aligned with the thrombosed vessel using a positioning system. Diluted lipid-encapsulated microbubbles were infused during ultrasound application. Percent thrombus dissolution (%TD) was calculated by comparison of clot mass before and after treatment. Both 2-D and 3-D-guided ultrasound increased %TD compared with microbubbles alone, but %TD achieved with 6-h-old thrombi was significantly less than 3-h-old thrombi. Thrombus dissolution was achieved at 10 cm tissue-mimicking depths, even without inertial cavitation. In conclusion, diagnostic 2-D or 3-D ultrasound can dissolve thrombi with intravenous nontargeted microbubbles, even at tissue attenuation distances of up to 10 cm. This treatment modality is less effective, however, for older aged thrombi. (E-mail: [email protected]) (C) 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology

### Teachers Bridging the Digital Divide in Rural Schools with 1:1 Computing

This article shares the findings of a mixed method study about the implementation of 1:1 computing in a small rural Florida school district. Researchers used multiple regression analyses to examine whether Davisâ€™ (1989) Technology Acceptance Model helped explain teachersâ€™ adoption of 1:1. The results indicated that the rural teachersâ€™ perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of 1:1 were significant predictors of both whole class and individualized instructions with 1:1. The qualitative phase of the study explored the ways in which the teachers integrated 1:1 into their instructional practices and what factors motivated them to do so. The analysis showed that the teachers used 1:1 largely to foster digital literacy and collaboration as well as to conduct student assessment. Reasons why the teachers integrated 1:1 into instruction included increasing student engagement, personalizing learning, and facilitating teacher productivity

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