1,919 research outputs found

    Nutrient Management Approaches and Tools for Dairy Farms in Australia and the U.S.

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    Nutrient surpluses in industrialized nations like the U.S. and Australia are causing problems on dairy farms and posing a threat to the rest of the environment. This paper discusses tools that dairy farmers can use to manage the excess nutrients while continuing to meet demands and profit. The authors suggest improvements in these tools that will not only quantify the amount of nutrient balances on dairy farms, but also identify opportunities for enhanced nutrient use and reduced nutrient losses.Nutrient Management Tools, Australian Dairy Farms, U.S. Dairy Farms, Confinement-based Dairy Operations, Grazing-based Diary Operations, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,

    The Role of United States Trade Laws in Resolving the Florida-Mexico Tomato Conflict

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    For discussion purposes, we have been asked to assume that the agreement entered into in October 1996 between the U.S. Department of Commerce (Commerce) and Mexican tomato exporters, which resulted in suspension of an antidumping investigation of tomatoes from Mexico, has ended. The new owner of many of Florida\u27s winter vegetable producers, concerned with the continuing rise in market share represented by Mexican imports, is considering further action under the trade remedy and other laws. This article will discuss the potential role of the antidumping and countervailing duty laws in these deliberations, as well as the operation of the dispute settlement mechanisms of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization (WTO)

    Agriculture and Dairy Production Systems in China: An Overview and Case Studies

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    The Chinese dairy industry is growing rapidly. Since 1980, the rate of increase in dairy cattle in China's dairy industry (+210,000 cows per year) is 1.7 times higher than the rate of decline of dairy cattle in the US dairy industry (-124,000 cows per year). If the current trends do not change, there will be as many dairy cows in China as in the US-approximately 7.45 million cows in 2012. This two-part Discussion Paper presents the context in which the Chinese dairy industry is developing (Part I) and a study of the Dairy Farm systems and case studies of five farms in the Province of Yunnan, the city of Beijing and the province of Heilongjiang (Part II).Chinese Dairy Industry, Dairy Cows in China, Development of the Chinese Dairy Industry, Chinese Dairy Farm Case Studies, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Productivity Analysis,

    Phosphorus and Dairy/Beef Nutrition

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    Phosphorus (P), a required nutrient for all livestock, has numerous essential physiological functions in the body that include energy transfer (ATP), structure of bone, teeth, and membranes, and buffering pH changes in the rumen (salivary phosphate). Ruminants use a larger proportion of dietary P than nonruminants because rumen microbes produce phytase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes P from phytate. The majority of P in most grains is in phytate form, a P form largely unavailable to swine and poultry

    Phosphorus and Dairy/Beef Nutrition

    Get PDF
    Phosphorus (P), a required nutrient for all livestock, has numerous essential physiological functions in the body that include energy transfer (ATP), structure of bone, teeth, and membranes, and buffering pH changes in the rumen (salivary phosphate). Ruminants use a larger proportion of dietary P than nonruminants because rumen microbes produce phytase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes P from phytate. The majority of P in most grains is in phytate form, a P form largely unavailable to swine and poultry

    Standardizing Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Translation to Clinical Use: Selection of GMP-Compliant Medium and a Simplified Isolation Method

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    Citation: Smith, J. R., Pfeifer, K., Petry, F., Powell, N., Delzeit, J., & Weiss, M. L. (2016). Standardizing Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Translation to Clinical Use: Selection of GMP-Compliant Medium and a Simplified Isolation Method. Stem Cells International, 14. doi:10.1155/2016/6810980Umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) are a focus for clinical translation but standardized methods for isolation and expansion are lacking. Previously we published isolation and expansion methods for UC-MSCs which presented challenges when considering good manufacturing practices (GMP) for clinical translation. Here, a new and more standardized method for isolation and expansion of UC-MSCs is described. The new method eliminates dissection of blood vessels and uses a closed-vessel dissociation following enzymatic digestion which reduces contamination risk and manipulation time. The new method produced >10 times more cells per cm of UC than our previous method. When biographical variables were compared, more UC-MSCs per gram were isolated after vaginal birth compared to Caesarian-section births, an unexpected result. UC-MSCs were expanded in medium enriched with 2%, 5%, or 10% pooled human platelet lysate (HPL) eliminating the xenogeneic serum components. When the HPL concentrations were compared, media supplemented with 10% HPL had the highest growth rate, smallest cells, and the most viable cells at passage. UC-MSCs grown in 10% HPL had surface marker expression typical of MSCs, high colony forming efficiency, and could undergo trilineage differentiation. The new protocol standardizes manufacturing of UC-MSCs and enables clinical translation

    Observations of Screw Dislocation Driven Growth and Faceting During CVD Homoepitaxy on 4H-SiC On-Axis Mesa Arrays

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    Previous studies of (0001) homoepitaxial growth carried out on arrays of small-area mesas etched into on-axis silicon-face 4H-SiC wafers have demonstrated that spiral growth emanating from at least one screw dislocation threading the mesa is necessary in order for a mesa to grow taller in the (c-axis vertical) direction while maintaining 4H stacking sequence [1]. However, even amongst mesas containing the screw dislocation step source necessary for vertical c-axis growth, we have observed striking differences in the height and faceting that evolve during prolonged homoepitaxial growths. This paper summarizes Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging (ECCI), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy observations of this phenomenon. These observations support our initially proposed model [2] that the observed large variation (for mesas where 3C-SiC nucleation has not occurred) is related to the lateral positioning of a screw dislocation step source within each etched mesa. When the screw dislocation step source is located close enough to the developing edge/sidewall facet of a mesa, the c-axis growth rate and facet angle are affected by the resulting interaction. In particular, the intersection (or near intersection) of the inward-sloping mesa sidewall facet with the screw dislocation appears to impede the rate at which the spiral provides new steps required for c-axis growth. Also, the inward slope of the sidewall facet during growth (relative to other sidewalls of the same mesa not near the screw dislocation) seems to be impeded by the screw dislocation. In contrast, mesas whose screw dislocations are centrally located grow vertically, but inward sloping sidewall facets shrink the area of the top (0001) growth surface almost to the point of vanishing
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