1,857 research outputs found

    The study of the machine-induced background and its applications at the LHC

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    We present the recent advances in the analysis of the machine-induced background generation and formation at the LHC. Different aspects of the study of the machine background problem at the LHC are reviewed, including the background production at the different stages of the machine operation, the role and influence on the background from the collimators in the experimental insertions and the background shielding. The potential use of the machine background for the purposes of detector testing and alignment is also discussed

    Tertiary halo and tertiary background in the low luminosity experimental insertion IR8 of the LHC

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    In our report we present the results for numerical simulation of tertiary halo and tertiary background in the LHC. We study the case of the proton losses in the betatron cleaning insertion IR7 with the subsequent tertiary halo generation in the downstream experimental insertion IR8. We analyze the formation of tertiary background in the experimental area of the IR8 and evaluate the performance of the machine-detector interface shielding with respect to this source of the background. The results obtained are compared with the previous estimates of the machine-induced background in the low luminosity insertions of the LHC, and the balance between different sources of the background is discussed

    Restricted Attentional Capacity within but Not between Sensory Modalities: An Individual Differences Approach

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    Background Most people show a remarkable deficit to report the second of two targets when presented in close temporal succession, reflecting an attentional blink (AB). An aspect of the AB that is often ignored is that there are large individual differences in the magnitude of the effect. Here we exploit these individual differences to address a long-standing question: does attention to a visual target come at a cost for attention to an auditory target (and vice versa)? More specifically, the goal of the current study was to investigate a) whether individuals with a large within-modality AB also show a large cross-modal AB, and b) whether individual differences in AB magnitude within different modalities correlate or are completely separate. Methodology/Principal Findings While minimizing differential task difficulty and chances for a task-switch to occur, a significant AB was observed when targets were both presented within the auditory or visual modality, and a positive correlation was found between individual within-modality AB magnitudes. However, neither a cross-modal AB nor a correlation between cross-modal and within-modality AB magnitudes was found. Conclusion/Significance The results provide strong evidence that a major source of attentional restriction must lie in modality-specific sensory systems rather than a central amodal system, effectively settling a long-standing debate. Individuals with a large within-modality AB may be especially committed or focused in their processing of the first target, and to some extent that tendency to focus could cross modalities, reflected in the within-modality correlation. However, what they are focusing (resource allocation, blocking of processing) is strictly within-modality as it only affects the second target on within-modality trials. The findings show that individual differences in AB magnitude can provide important information about the modular structure of human cognition

    Low estimated glomerular filtration rate and pneumonia in stroke patients: findings from a prospective stroke registry in the East of England

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    Priya Vart,1,2 Joao H Bettencourt-Silva,3,4 Anthony K Metcalf,3,4 Kristian M Bowles,3,4 John F Potter,3,4 Phyo K Myint1,3,4 1Ageing Clinical and Experimental Research, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Medical Sciences & Nutrition, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK; 2Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Department for Health Evidence, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 3Stroke Research Group, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, UK; 4Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Purpose: Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (<60 mL/min/1.73 m2) is a recognized risk factor for pneumonia in general population. While pneumonia is common after stroke, the association between levels of eGFR and pneumonia in stroke patient population has not yet been examined thoroughly. Patients and methods: Using data of 10,329 patients from the Norfolk and Norwich Stroke Registry between January 2003 and April 2015, we examined the association of poststroke pneumonia (in-hospital and after discharge) with low eGFR and when eGFR is divided into the complete spectrum of clinically relevant categories; (≥90) (ref.), 60–89, 45–59, 30–44, 15–30, and <15 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results: In all, 1,519 (14.7%) developed in-hospital pneumonia and 1,037 (12.9%) developed pneumonia after hospital discharge. In age- and sex-adjusted model, low eGFR was associated with in-hospital pneumonia (subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR): 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01–1.25) and pneumonia after discharge (sHR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.07–1.38). In fully adjusted model, association remained significant for pneumonia after hospital discharge. When eGFR was categorized in all clinically relevant categories, association with in-hospital pneumonia tended to be “U” shaped (eg, compared to eGFR ≥90, sHR for 60–89 was 0.78; 95% CI: 0.62–0.99 and for <15 was 1.06; 95% CI: 0.71–1.60) and association with pneumonia after discharge tended to increase with decline in eGFR level such that risk was almost two fold higher at eGFR <15 (sHR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.01–3.51). Association for in-hospital pneumonia was driven mainly by aspiration pneumonia, whereas association in stroke survivors was predominantly for nonaspiration pneumonia. Conclusion: In stroke patients, low eGFR at admission was associated with pneumonia, particularly severely reduced eGFR with nonaspiration pneumonia after hospital discharge. eGFR could form the basis for identifying patients at high risk of poststroke pneumonia. Keywords: stroke, eGFR, prognosis, epidemiolog

    Integrating physiological threshold experiments with climate modeling to project mangrove species’ range expansion

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    Predictions of climate-related shifts in species ranges have largely been based on correlative models. Due to limitations of these models, there is a need for more integration of experimental approaches when studying impacts of climate change on species distributions. Here, we used controlled experiments to identify physiological thresholds that control poleward range limits of three species of mangroves found in North America. We found that all three species exhibited a threshold response to extreme cold, but freeze tolerance thresholds varied among species. From these experiments, we developed a climate metric, freeze degree days (FDD), which incorporates both the intensity and the frequency of freezes. When included in distribution models, FDD accurately predicted mangrove presence/absence. Using 28 years of satellite imagery, we linked FDD to observed changes in mangrove abundance in Florida, further exemplifying the importance of extreme cold. We then used downscaled climate projections of FDD to project that these range limits will move northward by 2.2–3.2 km yr⁻¹ over the next 50 years

    Reconstructing ‘the Alcoholic’: Recovering from Alcohol Addiction and the Stigma this Entails

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    Public perception of alcohol addiction is frequently negative, whilst an important part of recovery is the construction of a positive sense of self. In order to explore how this might be achieved, we investigated how those who self-identify as in recovery from alcohol problems view themselves and their difficulties with alcohol and how they make sense of others’ responses to their addiction. Semi-structured interviews with six individuals who had been in recovery between 5 and 35 years and in contact with Alcoholics Anonymous were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The participants were acutely aware of stigmatising images of ‘alcoholics’ and described having struggled with a considerable dilemma in accepting this identity themselves. However, to some extent they were able to resist stigma by conceiving of an ‘aware alcoholic self’ which was divorced from their previously unaware self and formed the basis for a new more knowing and valued identity

    Brain permeable AMP-activated protein kinase activator R481 raises glycaemia by autonomic nervous system activation and amplifies the counterregulatory response to hypoglycaemia in rats

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    This is the final version. Available on open access from Frontiers Media via the DOI in this record.Data Availability Statement: The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.Aim: We evaluated the efficacy of a novel brain permeable “metformin-like” AMP-activated protein kinase activator, R481, in regulating glucose homeostasis. Materials and Methods: We used glucose sensing hypothalamic GT1-7 neuronal cells and pancreatic αTC1.9 α-cells to examine the effect of R481 on AMPK pathway activation and cellular metabolism. Glucose tolerance tests and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hypoglycemic clamps were used in Sprague-Dawley rats to assess insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemia counterregulation, respectively. Results: In vitro, we demonstrate that R481 increased AMPK phosphorylation in GT1-7 and αTC1.9 cells. In Sprague-Dawley rats, R481 increased peak glucose levels during a glucose tolerance test, without altering insulin levels or glucose clearance. The effect of R481 to raise peak glucose levels was attenuated by allosteric brain permeable AMPK inhibitor SBI-0206965. This effect was also completely abolished by blockade of the autonomic nervous system using hexamethonium. During hypoglycemic clamp studies, R481 treated animals had a significantly lower glucose infusion rate compared to vehicle treated controls. Peak plasma glucagon levels were significantly higher in R481 treated rats with no change to plasma adrenaline levels. In vitro, R481 did not alter glucagon release from αTC1.9 cells, but increased glycolysis. Non brain permeable AMPK activator R419 enhanced AMPK activity in vitro in neuronal cells but did not alter glucose excursion in vivo. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that peripheral administration of the brain permeable “metformin-like” AMPK activator R481 increases blood glucose by activation of the autonomic nervous system and amplifies the glucagon response to hypoglycemia in rats. Taken together, our data suggest that R481 amplifies the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia by a central rather than a direct effect on the pancreatic α-cell. These data provide proof-of-concept that central AMPK could be a target for future drug development for prevention of hypoglycemia in diabetes.Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation InternationalDiabetes UKSociety for EndocrinologyBritish Society for NeuroendocrinologyUniversity of Exete

    PIP5KIβ Selectively Modulates Apical Endocytosis in Polarized Renal Epithelial Cells

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    Localized synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] at clathrin coated pits (CCPs) is crucial for the recruitment of adaptors and other components of the internalization machinery, as well as for regulating actin dynamics during endocytosis. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is synthesized from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate by any of three phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase type I (PIP5KI) isoforms (α, β or γ). PIP5KIβ localizes almost exclusively to the apical surface in polarized mouse cortical collecting duct cells, whereas the other isoforms have a less polarized membrane distribution. We therefore investigated the role of PIP5KI isoforms in endocytosis at the apical and basolateral domains. Endocytosis at the apical surface is known to occur more slowly than at the basolateral surface. Apical endocytosis was selectively stimulated by overexpression of PIP5KIβ whereas the other isoforms had no effect on either apical or basolateral internalization. We found no difference in the affinity for PtdIns(4,5)P2-containing liposomes of the PtdIns(4,5)P2 binding domains of epsin and Dab2, consistent with a generic effect of elevated PtdIns(4,5)P2 on apical endocytosis. Additionally, using apical total internal reflection fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy we found that cells overexpressing PIP5KIβ have fewer apical CCPs but more internalized coated structures than control cells, consistent with enhanced maturation of apical CCPs. Together, our results suggest that synthesis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 mediated by PIP5KIβ is rate limiting for apical but not basolateral endocytosis in polarized kidney cells. PtdIns(4,5)P2 may be required to overcome specific structural constraints that limit the efficiency of apical endocytosis. © 2013 Szalinski et al

    Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

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    Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a computerised barcode medication management system designed to improve drug administrations in residential and nursing homes, including comparison of error rates and staff awareness in both settings. Methods All medication administrations were recorded prospectively for 345 older residents in thirteen care homes during a 3-month period using the computerised system. Staff were surveyed to identify their awareness of administration errors prior to system introduction. Overall, 188,249 attempts to administer medication were analysed to determine the prevalence of potential medication administration errors (MAEs). Error classifications included attempts to administer medication at the wrong time, to the wrong person or discontinued medication. Analysis compared data at residential and nursing home level and care and nursing staff groups. Results Typically each resident was exposed to 206 medication administration episodes every month and received nine different drugs. Administration episodes were more numerous (p < 0.01) in nursing homes (226.7 per resident) than in residential homes (198.7). Prior to technology introduction, only 12% of staff administering drugs reported they were aware of administration errors being averted in their care home. Following technology introduction, 2,289 potential MAEs were recorded over three months. The most common MAE was attempting to give medication at the wrong time. On average each resident was exposed to 6.6 potential errors. In total, 90% of residents were exposed to at least one MAE with over half (52%) exposed to serious errors such as attempts to give medication to the wrong resident. MAEs rates were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in residential homes than nursing homes. The level of non-compliance with system alerts was low in both settings (0.075% of administrations) demonstrating virtually complete error avoidance. Conclusion Potentially inappropriate administration of medication is a serious problem in long-term residential care. A computerised barcode system can accurately and automatically detect inappropriate attempts to administer drugs to residents. This tool can reliably be used by care staff as well as nurses to improve quality of care and patient safety

    Structural and biochemical characterization of the exopolysaccharide deacetylase Agd3 required for Aspergillus fumigatus biofilm formation

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    The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is an important virulence factor of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Deletion of a gene encoding a putative deacetylase, Agd3, leads to defects in GAG deacetylation, biofilm formation, and virulence. Here, we show that Agd3 deacetylates GAG in a metal-dependent manner, and is the founding member of carbohydrate esterase family CE18. The active site is formed by four catalytic motifs that are essential for activity. The structure of Agd3 includes an elongated substrate-binding cleft formed by a carbohydrate binding module (CBM) that is the founding member of CBM family 87. Agd3 homologues are encoded in previously unidentified putative bacterial exopolysaccharide biosynthetic operons and in other fungal genomes. The exopolysaccharide galactosaminogalactan (GAG) is an important virulence factor of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here, the authors study an A. fumigatus enzyme that deacetylates GAG in a metal-dependent manner and constitutes a founding member of a new carbohydrate esterase family.Bio-organic Synthesi
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