159 research outputs found

    Mapping maritime power and control: a study of the late eighteenth century Qisheng yanhai tu (a coastal map of the seven provinces)

    Get PDF
    This article surveys a Chinese coastal map (haitu), similar to the sea charts used in the west. The map was produced in the late eighteenth century under the official supervision of the Qing court. Titled Qisheng yanhai tu (A coastal map of the seven provinces), this was one of very few maps made before the First Opium War that charted the contours of coastal regions and the immediate sea space under the control of the Qing Empire. It is also notable for the detailed paratextual information printed on the map touching upon various issues, such as the importance of coastal defense, the significance of the Bohai Sea, the dividing logic between inner and outer sea spaces, as well as the topographies of strategic islands off the China coast. In line with cartographic depictions, these paratextual materials indicate the way that the Manchu Empire conceptualized the maritime frontier in a deliberate and preventive manner. Through careful analysis of this coastal map, we can reexamine the overriding, conventional conception of the Qing Empire as strictly a land-based, continental power that cared little about the ocean before the arrival of western gunboats in the mid-nineteenth centur

    A port city in Northeast China: Dengzhou in the Long eighteenth century

    Get PDF
    AbstractIf we were asked to recall a coastal city of early modern China, most of us would choose Shanghai, Canton, Xiamen, or Macau. These port cities became famous for facilitating trans-regional sea trade that linked the Qing Empire to the rest of the world. Attentive observers know that all of these cities are located on the Southeast China coast, by which we mean the coastal areas south of Shanghai. Taking Shanghai as the dividing line between the northeastern and southeastern coastlines, the port cities of the south are far more likely to be familiar to us than are those of the north. I consider this phenomenon (i.e. the focus on the coast of early modern China) to be a “Southeast China centrism.” And although we might all concede that some southeastern seaports were vital to transoceanic interactions, it is shortsighted to ignore the northern port cities and the role they played in connecting China with the maritime world. In this article I investigate the importance of Northeast China's port cities by focusing particular attention on the less familiar coastal seaport of Dengzhou. By detailing and examining the political and economic importance of this port city in the early modern period, I will show that Qing China's northeastern coast was no less important than the southeast. Even if China's northern port cities might not have been as economically vibrant as those in the south, we should not overlook their functions and histories. Indeed, they also attained unique patterns of political and economic development throughout the long eighteenth century.</jats:p

    Hero or Villain? The evolving legacy of Shi Lang in China and Taiwan

    Get PDF
    For over two centuries, some of China’s most prominent officials, literary figures, and intellectuals have paid special attention to the legacy of Shi Lang. Compared to many other historical figures, in East Asia’s cross-strait tensions and geopolitics, Shi Lang remains essential to our understanding of this region’s troubled past and the murky outlook for its future. Although the image of Shi Lang continues to mean different things to different people, to some degree, his significance to one particular community is also communicated to other communities. As a result, by analysing most of the previous appraisals and examinations of Shi Lang, we can see the historical narratives of this man as being continually under construction in a shifting and mutually reinforcing process. This paper aims to examine the ways in which the legacy of Shi Lang has percolated throughout Chinese history, since the Qing Dynasty, and also how it continues to function in the present day. It is fascinating to not only delineate how the story of Shi Lang has evolved as a legacy, but also to explore the rich variety of ways in which an individual or a community has adapted the narratives that makes up the story of Shi Lang to suit the demands of different historical settings and perspectives

    Crafting a nation, fishing for power: the Universal Exposition of 1906 and fisheries governance in Late Qing China

    Get PDF
    The 1906 Universal Exposition hosted in Milan was a defining moment for the late Qing in terms of its fisheries development. The exhibition not only allowed China to portray its strategic focus on its fisheries but also its determination to be seen as a modernized and progressive sea power in Asia. China’s involvement in this world’s fair also paralleled the process of political and economic consolidation of some of the country’s intellectuals at the turn of the nineteenth century. These intellectuals’ accumulated experience, common goals, and international consciousness made it possible to assemble a group of professional experts I refer to as the ‘new fisheries elites’, who were able to construct the image of China as a modern fisheries power, if not a sea power, at various levels. The first part of this article will situate this exposition within the final two decades of the Qing Empire in the context of the political, social, and cultural transformation that was taking place around the world at the time. China’s presence at the world’s fair during this period displayed the adjustments of a changing and dynamic national image in terms of both its national circumstances and its international situation. The second part will then move on to discuss in what ways the Milan exposition was conceived by elites such as Zhang Jian, Luo Cheng, and Guo Fengming as a paradigmatic setting in which to showcase China’s drive toward modernity and becoming a sea power. Although China had participated in several other universal expositions, the Qing court had clearer and more pragmatic objectives in its participation in Milan in 1906. This was to demonstrate its recent progress and to change the common impression of China as an insecure, inexperienced, and incompetent country in terms of its fisheries governance and maritime vision. To produce this image, Zhang Jian and his team undertook a sensible and impressive approach towards presenting to the world China’s maritime awareness and the long historical continuity between this country and the sea. This was a conscious effort to produce an ideal of what a modern, progressive maritime China should look like

    The Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit at Kandahar Airfield 2005–2010

    Get PDF
    In late 2005, Canadian Forces Health Services (CFHS) was tasked with the command of the NATO Role 3 Multinational Medical Unit (R3MMU) on Kandahar Airfield in southern Afghanistan. Preparations drew on past experience and planning. Eight complete hospital contingents were trained and deployed in rotation. Near-reality simulation training was undertaken with the combat brigade, including complete deployment of the field hospital in the exercise area. Standard operating procedures (SOP) were developed and applied by each rotation so successfully that they were adopted by the new command in late 2009. The Canadian period at R3MMU had the highest survival rate ever recorded for victims of war. Lessons learned are being applied among victims of the conflict and trauma. The experience of the R3MMU was used to successfully deploy a hospital as part of the earthquake relief effort in Haiti in 2010. The training protocols and SOP are being applied to disaster preparedness in Canadian civilian hospitals

    Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study

    Get PDF
    Background Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Methods Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. Results The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients at follow-up, compared to 0 % of controls at baseline or follow-up. Conclusions Results from our feasibility assessment suggest that the investigation of ANS function in young adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is possible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report CASS-based evidence of ANS impairment and sudomotor dysfunction in any cancer population. Moreover, we provide evidence of cancer- and chemotherapy-related parasympathetic dysfunction – as a possible contributor to the pathogenesis of CV disease in cancer survivors

    GWAS Meta-Analysis of Suicide Attempt: Identification of 12 Genome-Wide Significant Loci and Implication of Genetic Risks for Specific Health Factors

    Get PDF
    • 

    corecore