473 research outputs found

    On computations of the integrated space shuttle flowfield using overset grids

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    Numerical simulations using the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations and chimera (overset) grid approach were carried out for flows around the integrated space shuttle vehicle over a range of Mach numbers. Body-conforming grids were used for all the component grids. Testcases include a three-component overset grid - the external tank (ET), the solid rocket booster (SRB) and the orbiter (ORB), and a five-component overset grid - the ET, SRB, ORB, forward and aft attach hardware, configurations. The results were compared with the wind tunnel and flight data. In addition, a Poisson solution procedure (a special case of the vorticity-velocity formulation) using primitive variables was developed to solve three-dimensional, irrotational, inviscid flows for single as well as overset grids. The solutions were validated by comparisons with other analytical or numerical solution, and/or experimental results for various geometries. The Poisson solution was also used as an initial guess for the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution procedure to improve the efficiency of the numerical flow simulations. It was found that this approach resulted in roughly a 30 percent CPU time savings as compared with the procedure solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations from a uniform free stream flowfield

    On solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady flows at very low Mach numbers

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    The properties of a preconditioned, coupled, strongly implicit finite difference scheme for solving the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are investigated for two unsteady flows at low speeds, namely the impulsively started driven cavity and the startup of pipe flow. For the shear-driven cavity flow, the computational effort was observed to be nearly independent of Mach number, especially at the low end of the range considered. This Mach number independence was also observed for steady pipe flow calculations; however, rather different conclusions were drawn for the unsteady calculations. In the pressure-driven pipe startup problem, the compressibility of the fluid began to significantly influence the physics of the flow development at quite low Mach numbers. The present scheme was observed to produce the expected characteristics of completely incompressible flow when the Mach number was set at very low values. Good agreement with incompressible results available in the literature was observed

    Application of viscous-inviscid interaction methods to transonic turbulent flows

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    Two different viscous-inviscid interaction schemes were developed for the analysis of steady, turbulent, transonic, separated flows over axisymmetric bodies. The viscous and inviscid solutions are coupled through the displacement concept using a transpiration velocity approach. In the semi-inverse interaction scheme, the viscous and inviscid equations are solved in an explicitly separate manner and the displacement thickness distribution is iteratively updated by a simple coupling algorithm. In the simultaneous interaction method, local solutions of viscous and inviscid equations are treated simultaneously, and the displacement thickness is treated as an unknown and is obtained as a part of the solution through a global iteration procedure. The inviscid flow region is described by a direct finite-difference solution of a velocity potential equation in conservative form. The potential equation is solved on a numerically generated mesh by an approximate factorization (AF2) scheme in the semi-inverse interaction method and by a successive line overrelaxation (SLOR) scheme in the simultaneous interaction method. The boundary-layer equations are used for the viscous flow region. The continuity and momentum equations are solved inversely in a coupled manner using a fully implicit finite-difference scheme

    Electrochemical micromachining: An Introduction

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    Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Electrochemical machining (ECM) is a relatively new technique, only being introduced as a commercial technique within the last 70 years (1). A lot of research was conducted in the 1960s and 1970s but research on electrical discharge machining (EDM) around the same time slowed ECM research (2). The main influence for the development of ECM came from the aerospace industry where very hard alloys were required to be machined without leaving a defective layer in order to produce a component which would behave reliably (3). ECM was primarily used for the production of gas turbine blades (2) or to machine materials into complex shapes that would be difficult to machine using conventional machining methods (4). Tool wear is high and the metal removal rate is slow when machining hard materials with conventional machining methods such as milling. This increases the cost of the machining process overall and this method creates a defective layer on the machined surface (3). Whereas with ECM there is virtually no tool wear even when machining hard materials and it does not leave a defective layer on the machined surface. This paper reviews the application of electrochemical machining with regards to micro-manufacturing and present state of the art micro ECM considering different machined materials, electrolytes and conditions used.The research reported in this article was supported by the European Commission within the project ‘Minimizing Defects in Micro-Manufacturing Applications (MIDEMMA)’ (FP7-2011-NMP-ICT-FoF-285614)

    Intra- and inter-individual genetic differences in gene expression

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    Genetic variation is known to influence the amount of mRNA produced by a gene. Given that the molecular machines control mRNA levels of multiple genes, we expect genetic variation in the components of these machines would influence multiple genes in a similar fashion. In this study we show that this assumption is correct by using correlation of mRNA levels measured independently in the brain, kidney or liver of multiple, genetically typed, mice strains to detect shared genetic influences. These correlating groups of genes (CGG) have collective properties that account for 40-90% of the variability of their constituent genes and in some cases, but not all, contain genes encoding functionally related proteins. Critically, we show that the genetic influences are essentially tissue specific and consequently the same genetic variations in the one animal may up-regulate a CGG in one tissue but down-regulate the same CGG in a second tissue. We further show similarly paradoxical behaviour of CGGs within the same tissues of different individuals. The implication of this study is that this class of genetic variation can result in complex inter- and intra-individual and tissue differences and that this will create substantial challenges to the investigation of phenotypic outcomes, particularly in humans where multiple tissues are not readily available.

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    Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic general ecosystem model

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    Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM) of ecosystem structure and function that is both global and applies in all terrestrial and marine environments. Functional forms and parameter values were derived from the theoretical and empirical literature where possible. Simulations of the fate of all organisms with body masses between 10 µg and 150,000 kg (a range of 14 orders of magnitude) across the globe led to emergent properties at individual (e.g., growth rate), community (e.g., biomass turnover rates), ecosystem (e.g., trophic pyramids), and macroecological scales (e.g., global patterns of trophic structure) that are in general agreement with current data and theory. These properties emerged from our encoding of the biology of, and interactions among, individual organisms without any direct constraints on the properties themselves. Our results indicate that ecologists have gathered sufficient information to begin to build realistic, global, and mechanistic models of ecosystems, capable of predicting a diverse range of ecosystem properties and their response to human pressures

    Phenotypic Plasticity of the Drosophila Transcriptome

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    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to changing environments. We assessed variation in genome-wide gene expression and four fitness-related phenotypes of an outbred Drosophila melanogaster population under 20 different physiological, social, nutritional, chemical, and physical environments; and we compared the phenotypically plastic transcripts to genetically variable transcripts in a single environment. The environmentally sensitive transcriptome consists of two transcript categories, which comprise ∼15% of expressed transcripts. Class I transcripts are genetically variable and associated with detoxification, metabolism, proteolysis, heat shock proteins, and transcriptional regulation. Class II transcripts have low genetic variance and show sexually dimorphic expression enriched for reproductive functions. Clustering analysis of Class I transcripts reveals a fragmented modular organization and distinct environmentally responsive transcriptional signatures for the four fitness-related traits. Our analysis suggests that a restricted environmentally responsive segment of the transcriptome preserves the balance between phenotypic plasticity and environmental canalization

    Genome-Wide Patterns of Gene Expression during Aging in the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

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    The primary means of reducing malaria transmission is through reduction in longevity in days of the adult female stage of the Anopheles vector. However, assessing chronological age is limited to crude physiologic methods which categorize the females binomially as either very young (nulliparous) or not very young (parous). Yet the epidemiologically relevant reduction in life span falls within the latter category. Age-grading methods that delineate chronological age, using accurate molecular surrogates based upon gene expression profiles, will allow quantification of the longevity-reducing effects of vector control tools aimed at the adult, female mosquito. In this study, microarray analyses of gene expression profiles in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae were conducted during natural senescence of females in laboratory conditions. Results showed that detoxification-related and stress-responsive genes were up-regulated as mosquitoes aged. A total of 276 transcripts had age-dependent expression, independently of blood feeding and egg laying events. Expression of 112 (40.6%) of these transcripts increased or decreased monotonically with increasing chronologic age. Seven candidate genes for practical age assessment were tested by quantitative gene amplification in the An. gambiae G3 strain in a laboratory experiment and the Mbita strain in field enclosures set up in western Kenya under conditions closely resembling natural ones. Results were similar between experiments, indicating that senescence is marked by changes in gene expression and that chronological age can be gauged accurately and repeatedly with this method. These results indicate that the method may be suitable for accurate gauging of the age in days of field-caught, female An. gambiae
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