124 research outputs found

    Introduction to linear logic and ludics, part II

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    This paper is the second part of an introduction to linear logic and ludics, both due to Girard. It is devoted to proof nets, in the limited, yet central, framework of multiplicative linear logic and to ludics, which has been recently developped in an aim of further unveiling the fundamental interactive nature of computation and logic. We hope to offer a few computer science insights into this new theory

    Realizability algebras II : new models of ZF + DC

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    Using the proof-program (Curry-Howard) correspondence, we give a new method to obtain models of ZF and relative consistency results in set theory. We show the relative consistency of ZF + DC + there exists a sequence of subsets of R the cardinals of which are strictly decreasing + other similar properties of R. These results seem not to have been previously obtained by forcing.Comment: 28

    Categorified cyclic operads

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    In this paper, we introduce a notion of categorified cyclic operad for set-based cyclic operads with symmetries. Our categorification is obtained by relaxing defining axioms of cyclic operads to isomorphisms and by formulating coherence conditions for these isomorphisms. The coherence theorem that we prove has the form "all diagrams of canonical isomorphisms commute". Our coherence results come in two flavours, corresponding to the "entries-only" and "exchangeable-output" definitions of cyclic operads. Our proof of coherence in the entries-only style is of syntactic nature and relies on the coherence of categorified non-symmetric operads established by Do\v{s}en and Petri\'c. We obtain the coherence in the exchangeable-output style by "lifting" the equivalence between entries-only and exchangeable-output cyclic operads, set up by the second author. Finally, we show that a generalisation of the structure of profunctors of B\' enabou provides an example of categorified cyclic operad, and we exploit the coherence of categorified cyclic operads in proving that the Feynman category for cyclic operads, due to Kaufmann and Ward, admits an odd version.Comment: 57 page

    Coherent Presentations of Monoidal Categories

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    Presentations of categories are a well-known algebraic tool to provide descriptions of categories by means of generators, for objects and morphisms, and relations on morphisms. We generalize here this notion, in order to consider situations where the objects are considered modulo an equivalence relation, which is described by equational generators. When those form a convergent (abstract) rewriting system on objects, there are three very natural constructions that can be used to define the category which is described by the presentation: one consists in turning equational generators into identities (i.e. considering a quotient category), one consists in formally adding inverses to equational generators (i.e. localizing the category), and one consists in restricting to objects which are normal forms. We show that, under suitable coherence conditions on the presentation, the three constructions coincide, thus generalizing celebrated results on presentations of groups, and we extend those conditions to presentations of monoidal categories

    Realizability algebras: a program to well order R

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    The theory of classical realizability is a framework in which we can develop the proof-program correspondence. Using this framework, we show how to transform into programs the proofs in classical analysis with dependent choice and the existence of a well ordering of the real line. The principal tools are: The notion of realizability algebra, which is a three-sorted variant of the well known combinatory algebra of Curry. An adaptation of the method of forcing used in set theory to prove consistency results. Here, it is used in another way, to obtain programs associated with a well ordering of R and the existence of a non trivial ultrafilter on N

    Derivation Lengths Classification of G\"odel's T Extending Howard's Assignment

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    Let T be Goedel's system of primitive recursive functionals of finite type in the lambda formulation. We define by constructive means using recursion on nested multisets a multivalued function I from the set of terms of T into the set of natural numbers such that if a term a reduces to a term b and if a natural number I(a) is assigned to a then a natural number I(b) can be assigned to b such that I(a) is greater than I(b). The construction of I is based on Howard's 1970 ordinal assignment for T and Weiermann's 1996 treatment of T in the combinatory logic version. As a corollary we obtain an optimal derivation length classification for the lambda formulation of T and its fragments. Compared with Weiermann's 1996 exposition this article yields solutions to several non-trivial problems arising from dealing with lambda terms instead of combinatory logic terms. It is expected that the methods developed here can be applied to other higher order rewrite systems resulting in new powerful termination orderings since T is a paradigm for such systems

    Syntactic aspects of hypergraph polytopes

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    This paper introduces an inductively defined tree notation for all the faces of polytopes arising from a simplex by truncations. This notation allows us to view inclusion of faces as the process of contracting tree edges. Our notation instantiates to the well-known notations for the faces of associahedra and permutohedra. Various authors have independently introduced combinatorial tools for describing such polytopes. We build on the particular approach developed by Dosen and Petric, who used the formalism of hypergraphs to describe the interval of polytopes from the simplex to the permutohedron. This interval was further stretched by Petric to allow truncations of faces that are themselves obtained by truncations, and iteratively so. Our notation applies to all these polytopes. We illustrate this by showing that it instantiates to a notation for the faces of the permutohedron-based associahedra, that consists of parenthesised words with holes. Dosen and Petric have exhibited some families of hypergraph polytopes (associahedra, permutohedra, and hemiassociahedra) describing the coherences, and the coherences between coherences etc., arising by weakening sequential and parallel associativity of operadic composition. We complement their work with a criterion allowing us to recover the information whether edges of these "operadic polytopes" come from sequential, or from parallel associativity. We also give alternative proofs for some of the original results of Dosen and Petric.Comment: 42 pages, 4 figure

    A Logical Foundation for Environment Classifiers

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    Taha and Nielsen have developed a multi-stage calculus {\lambda}{\alpha} with a sound type system using the notion of environment classifiers. They are special identifiers, with which code fragments and variable declarations are annotated, and their scoping mechanism is used to ensure statically that certain code fragments are closed and safely runnable. In this paper, we investigate the Curry-Howard isomorphism for environment classifiers by developing a typed {\lambda}-calculus {\lambda}|>. It corresponds to multi-modal logic that allows quantification by transition variables---a counterpart of classifiers---which range over (possibly empty) sequences of labeled transitions between possible worlds. This interpretation will reduce the "run" construct---which has a special typing rule in {\lambda}{\alpha}---and embedding of closed code into other code fragments of different stages---which would be only realized by the cross-stage persistence operator in {\lambda}{\alpha}---to merely a special case of classifier application. {\lambda}|> enjoys not only basic properties including subject reduction, confluence, and strong normalization but also an important property as a multi-stage calculus: time-ordered normalization of full reduction. Then, we develop a big-step evaluation semantics for an ML-like language based on {\lambda}|> with its type system and prove that the evaluation of a well-typed {\lambda}|> program is properly staged. We also identify a fragment of the language, where erasure evaluation is possible. Finally, we show that the proof system augmented with a classical axiom is sound and complete with respect to a Kripke semantics of the logic
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