14 research outputs found

    Western blotting analysis of <i>L</i>. <i>lactis</i> MG1363 PPiA KO mutant and its complemented mutant, where the SpaA-SrtC1 cassette was introduced.

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    <p>SpaA pilin proteins were detected using anti-SpaA polyclonal antibodies. Legend: #, protein weight marker; HMWL, high molecular weight ladder; *, band corresponding to elongated pilus structures.</p

    Electron microscopy observations of <i>Lb</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> PB12 and its SrtC1-complemented derivatives.

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    <p>Bacterial cells were immunogold-labeled with anti-SpaA serum and gold particles (10 nm). Legend: A, <i>Lb</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG; B, <i>Lb</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> PB12; C, <i>Lb</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> PB12 + SrtC1.</p

    Western blotting analysis of <i>L</i>. <i>lactis</i> NZ9000 expressing different <i>spaA-srtC</i>1 gene variants, where the GYPSY motif has been altered by AA substitution.

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    <p><b>SpaA pilin proteins were detected using anti-SpaA polyclonal antibodies.</b> Legend: #, protein weight marker; HMWL, high molecular weight ladder; *, band corresponding to elongated pilus structures.</p

    Genomic organization of polysaccharide clusters in <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> strains.

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    <p>A) EPS gene cluster of <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG is found from <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> strains of cluster A and strain Lrh20. Insertion sequence (IS)-like elements differ between the strains. B) The <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> strains of cluster B have differences at sequences encoding genes in the EPS gene cluster compared to <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG. The genes similar to the EPS gene cluster of <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG are named in the schematic illustration in the upper part (B). These regions include multiple genes coding IS-like elements such as IS5, IS66 and DDE transposases in the cluster B. The strains in cluster B have also other type of EPS/CPS gene cluster based on BLAST annotation results shown at the bottom (B). It consists of 19 or 20 genes which are annotated as 1. peptidoglycan N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (EC, 2. hypothetical protein (FIG00750667), 3. capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis protein, 4. hypothetical protein (FIG00754398), 5. tyrosine-protein kinase transmembrane modulator EpsC, 6. putative O-unit flippase, 7. glycosyl transferase, group 0, 8. glycosyl transferase family protein, 9. hypothetical protein (FIG00752018), 10. mobile element protein, 11. lysozyme M1 (1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase), 12. hypothetical protein (FIG00747485), 13. uncharacterized conserved protein, similar to IcaC of Staphylococcus; YHJR B.subtilis family, 14. glycosyltransferase, 15. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase (EC, 16. hypothetical protein (FIG00750997), 17. lipopolysaccharide synthesis sugar transferase, 18. polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CpsM, 19. putative N-acetylgalactosaminyldiphosphoundecaprenol and 20. UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (EC * = Transposase, IS150/IS3 present (only in Lrh11), ↑ = site of point mutations in the gene encoding lysozyme M1(1,4-beta-N-acetylmuramidase) (present in Lrh13 and Lrh28). The illustration of EPS cluster in 3A is modified after [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0176739#pone.0176739.ref046" target="_blank">46</a>].</p

    Immunological properties of <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG, clinical isolates and pathogens towards the human host based on <i>in vitro</i> data.

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    <p>Strains Lrh7, Lrh8, Lrh9, Lrh14, Lrh20, Lrh46, Lrh47, Lrh38 and Lrh39 displayed comparable properties as observed in <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG. All these strains activate the complement in serum. Strains Lrh13, Lrh30 and Lrh32 also induced more biofilm formation more than GG. Strains Lrh11, Lrh18 and Lrh22 were aggregating with platelets. Strain Lrh28 was doing both causing platelet aggregation and biofilm formation. The pathogenic group A <i>Streptococcus</i> strain emm8 induced complement activation, but it could bind complement regulator C4bp to evade complement. The pathogenic strain st369 could bind complement regulators C4bp and factor H and did not induce complement activation. A similar type of GAS strain has been shown to cause platelet aggregation [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0176739#pone.0176739.ref036" target="_blank">36</a>] and biofilm formation [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0176739#pone.0176739.ref037" target="_blank">37</a>]. The bolded strains have SpaCBA pili similar to GG.</p

    Clustering analysis of strains by ortholog copy numbers.

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    <p>The heat map rows represent centered and scaled ortholog copy numbers found in the strains. The dendrogram on the columns shows hierarchical clustering of the strains based on their ortholog copy numbers. Columns are annotated by each strain's BLAST nucleotide similarity to the <i>L</i>. <i>rhamnosus</i> GG genome.</p