681 research outputs found

    Co‐existing monophasic teratoma and uterine adenocarcinoma in a female dog

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    Ovarian teratomas are occasionally reported in dogs; the rarest type is the monophasic teratoma,composed of tissues originating from only one germ layer. Canine endometrial adenocarcinomas are also rare in dogs and mainly affect geriatric females. This report describes case of co-existing ovarian teratoma and uterine adenocarcinoma in a 10-year old nulliparous female Boxer presented with lethargy, anorexia and purulent vaginal discharge. Abdominal ultrasonography evidenced pyometra and a mass in the left ovary. This was composed of a uniform whitish tissue with multiple cystic structures. The histology revealed an atrophy of the ovarian parenchyma, compressed by a proliferation of well-differentiated nervous tissue staining positively to vimentin, S100 and neuronal specific enolase (NSE), and negatively to keratin and inhibin. The left uterine horn, whose diameter was markedly increased, showed foci of endometrial cellular atypia, evident nucleoli and mitoses, at light microscopy. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of a coexisting ovarian monophasic teratoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma, two rare reproductive neoplasia in dogs

    Computer-aided planning for zygomatic bone reconstruction in maxillofacial traumatology

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    An optimal planning procedure has been proposed to define the target position of the zygomatic bone following a fracture of the mid-face skeleton. The protocol has been successfully tested on healthy subjects, and ensures the global symmetry of the face could be obtained after the reconstruction surgery. Now that the planning procedure is available, the next step of this project will be to develop an intra-operative guiding system to help the surgeon to follow the planning. This procedure will mainly rely on the intra-operative registration of the zygomatic bone fragment, and the design of specific surgical ancillaries for cranio-maxillofacial surgery

    Molecular Beams

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    Contains research objectives, summary of research and reports on eight research projects.Joint Services Electronics Programs (U. S. Army, U. S. Navy, and U. S. Air Force) under Contract DAAB07-71-C-030

    In vivo and ex vivo percutaneous absorption of [14C]-bisphenol A in rats: a possible extrapolation to human absorption?

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    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used mainly in the synthesis of polycarbonates and epoxy resins. Percutaneous absorption is the second source of exposure, after inhalation, in the work environment. However, studies on this route of absorption are lacking or incomplete. In this study, percutaneous BPA absorption was measured in vivo and ex vivo in the rat, and ex vivo in humans. An approximately 12-fold difference in permeability between rat skin and human skin was found, with permeability being higher in the rat. In addition, inter- and intra-individual variability of up to tenfold was observed in humans. No accumulation of BPA in the skin was found during exposure. The skin clearance rate following exposure was estimated at 0.4 Όg/cmÂČ/h. Ex vivo and in vivo percutaneous absorption fluxes of BPA in the rat were in the same range (about 2.0 Όg/cmÂČ/h), suggesting that extrapolation to the in vivo situation in humans may be possible. The European tolerable daily intake (TDI) of BPA is 50 Όg/kg body weight. However, many research projects have highlighted the significant effects of BPA in rodents at doses lower than 10 Όg/kg/day. A 1-h occupational exposure over 2,000 cmÂČ (forearms and hands) may lead to a BPA absorption of 4 Όg/kg/day. This is 8% of the European TDI and is very close to the value at which effects have been observed in animals. This absorption must therefore be taken into account when evaluating risks of BPA exposure, at least until more relevant results on the toxicity of BPA in humans are available

    Validation and data characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide profiles observed by MIPAS and processed with Version 4.61 algorithm

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    The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements

    Helminth-induced arginase-1 exacerbates lung inflammation and disease severity in tuberculosis

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    Parasitic helminth worms, such as Schistosoma mansoni, are endemic in regions with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) among the population. Human studies suggest that helminth coinfections contribute to increased TB susceptibility and increased rates of TB reactivation. Prevailing models suggest that T helper type 2 (Th2) responses induced by helminth infection impair Th1 immune responses and thereby limit Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) control. Using a pulmonary mouse model of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that S. mansoni coinfection or immunization with S. mansoni egg antigens can reversibly impair Mtb-specific T cell responses without affecting macrophage-mediated Mtb control. Instead, S. mansoni infection resulted in accumulation of high arginase-1–expressing macrophages in the lung, which formed type 2 granulomas and exacerbated inflammation in Mtb-infected mice. Treatment of coinfected animals with an antihelminthic improved Mtb-specific Th1 responses and reduced disease severity. In a genetically diverse mouse population infected with Mtb, enhanced arginase-1 activity was associated with increased lung inflammation. Moreover, in patients with pulmonary TB, lung damage correlated with increased serum activity of arginase-1, which was elevated in TB patients coinfected with helminths. Together, our data indicate that helminth coinfection induces arginase-1–expressing type 2 granulomas, thereby increasing inflammation and TB disease severity. These results also provide insight into the mechanisms by which helminth coinfections drive increased susceptibility, disease progression, and severity in TB

    A signature of renal stress resistance induced by short-Term dietary restriction, fasting, and protein restriction

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    During kidney transplantation, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) induces oxidative stress. Short-Term preoperative 30% dietary restriction (DR) and 3-day fasting protect against renal IRI. We investigated the contribution of macronutrients to this protection on both phenotypical and transcriptional levels. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed control food ad libitum, underwent two weeks of 30%DR, 3-day fasting, or received a protein-, carbohydrate-or fat-free diet for various periods of time. After completion of each diet, renal gene expression was investigated using microarrays. After induction of renal IRI by clamping the renal pedicles, animals were monitored seven days postoperatively for signs of IRI. In addition to 3-day fasting and two weeks 30%DR, three days of a protein-free diet protected against renal IRI as well, whereas the other diets did not. Gene expression patterns significantly overlapped between all diets except the fat-free diet. Detailed meta-Analysis showed involvement of nuclear receptor signaling via transcription factors, including FOXO3, HNF4A and HMGA1. In conclusion, three days of a protein-free diet is sufficient to induce protection against renal IRI similar to 3-day fasting and two weeks of 30%DR. The elucidated network of common protective pathways and transcription factors further improves our mechanistic insight into the increased stress resistance induced by short-Term DR

    Preoperative fasting protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in aged and overweight mice

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    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is inevitable during kidney transplantation leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. We previously reported that preoperative fasting in young-lean male mice protects against IRI. Since patients are generally of older age with morbidities possibly leading to a different response to fasting, we investigated the effects of preoperative fasting on renal IRI in aged-overweight male and female mice. Male and female F1-FVB/C57BL6-hybrid mice, average age 73 weeks weighing 47.2 grams, were randomized to preoperative ad libitum feeding or 3 days fasting, followed by renal IRI. Body weight, kidney function and survival of the animals were monitored until day 28 postoperatively. Kidney histopathology was scored for all animals and gene expression profiles after fasting were analyzed in kidneys of young and aged male mice. Preoperative fasting significantly improved survival after renal IRI in both sexes compared with normal fed mice. Fasted groups had a better kidney function shown by lower serum urea levels after renal IRI. Histopathology showed less acute tubular necrosis and more regeneration in kidneys from fasted mice. A mRNA analysis indicated the involvement of metabolic processes including fatty acid oxidation and retinol metabolism, and the NRF2-mediated stress response. Similar to young-lean, healthy male mice, preoperative fasting protects against renal IRI in aged-overweight mice of both genders. These findings suggest a general protective response of fasting against renal IRI regardless of age, gender, body weight and genetic background. Therefore, fasting could be a non-invasive intervention inducing increased oxidative stress resistance in older and overweight patients as well
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