86,614 research outputs found

    Metric and topo-geometric properties of urban street networks: some convergences, divergences, and new results

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    The theory of cities, which has grown out of the use of space syntax techniques in urban studies, proposes a curious mathematical duality: that urban space is locally metric but globally topo-geometric. Evidence for local metricity comes from such generic phenomena as grid intensification to reduce mean trip lengths in live centres, the fall of movement from attractors with metric distance, and the commonly observed decay of shopping with metric distance from an intersection. Evidence for global topo-geometry come from the fact that we need to utilise both the geometry and connectedness of the larger scale space network to arrive at configurational measures which optimally approximate movement patterns in the urban network. It might be conjectured that there is some threshold above which human being use some geometrical and topological representation of the urban grid rather than the sense of bodily distance to making movement decisions, but this is unknown. The discarding of metric properties in the large scale urban grid has, however, been controversial. Here we cast a new light on this duality. We show first some phenomena in which metric and topo-geometric measures of urban space converge and diverge, and in doing so clarify the relation between the metric and topo-geometric properties of urban spatial networks. We then show how metric measures can be used to create a new urban phenomenon: the partitioning of the background network of urban space into a network of semi-discrete patches by applying metric universal distance measures at different metric radii, suggesting a natural spatial area-isation of the city at all scales. On this basis we suggest a key clarification of the generic structure of cities: that metric universal distance captures exactly the formally and functionally local patchwork properties of the network, most notably the spatial differentiation of areas, while the top-geometric measures identifying the structure which overcomes locality and links the urban patchwork into a whole at different scales

    Metric and topo-geometric properties of urban street networks: some convergences, divergences and new results

    Get PDF
    The theory of cities, which has grown out of the use of space syntax techniques in urban studies, proposes a curious mathematical duality: that urban space is locally metric but globally topo-geometric. Evidence for local metricity comes from such generic phenomena as grid intensification to reduce mean trip lengths in live centres, the fall of movement from attractors with metric distance, and the commonly observed decay of shopping with metric distance from an intersection. Evidence for global topo-geometry come from the fact that we need to utilise both the geometry and connectedness of the larger scale space network to arrive at configurational measures which optimally approximate movement patterns in the urban network. It might be conjectured that there is some threshold above which human being use some geometrical and topological representation of the urban grid rather than the sense of bodily distance to making movement decisions, but this is unknown. The discarding of metric properties in the large scale urban grid has, however, been controversial. Here we cast a new light on this duality. We show first some phenomena in which metric and topo-geometric measures of urban space converge and diverge, and in doing so clarify the relation between the metric and topo-geometric properties of urban spatial networks. We then show how metric measures can be used to create a new urban phenomenon: the partitioning of the background network of urban space into a network of semi-discrete patches by applying metric universal distance measures at different metric radii, suggesting a natural spatial area-isation of the city at all scales. On this basis we suggest a key clarification of the generic structure of cities: that metric universal distance captures exactly the formally and functionally local patchwork properties of the network, most notably the spatial differentiation of areas, while the top-geometric measures identifying the structure which overcomes locality and links the urban patchwork into a whole at different scales

    Sound velocity anisotropy in cubic crystals

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    Simple analytical expressions may be derived for sound velocities in cubic crystals by using lattice harmonics or functions which are invariant under the crystal symmetry operations. These expressions are in good agreement with the exact results for typical crystals such as metallic iron and potassium fluoride

    Solar-neutrino reactions on deuteron in effective field theory

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    The cross sections for low-energy neutrino-deuteron reactions are calculated within heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory employing cut-off regularization scheme. The transition operators are derived up to next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in the Weinberg counting rules, while the nuclear matrix elements are evaluated using the wave functions generated by a high-quality phenomenological NN potential. With the adoption of the axial-current-four-nucleon coupling constant fixed from the tritium beta decay data, our calculation is free from unknown low-energy constants. Our results exhibit a high degree of stability against different choices of the cutoff parameter, a feature which indicates that, apart from radiative corrections, the uncertainties in the calculated cross sections are less than 1 %.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figures. Error estimation of higher order corrections detaile

    A key to room-temperature ferromagnetism in Fe-doped ZnO: Cu

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    Successful synthesis of room-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors, Zn1x_{1-x}Fex_{x}O, is reported. The essential ingredient in achieving room-temperature ferromagnetism in bulk Zn1x_{1-x}Fex_{x}O was found to be additional Cu doping. A transition temperature as high as 550 K was obtained in Zn0.94_{0.94}Fe0.05_{0.05}Cu0.01_{0.01}O; the saturation magnetization at room temperature reached a value of 0.75μB0.75 \mu_{\rm B} per Fe. Large magnetoresistance was also observed below 100100 K.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figures; to appear in Appl. Phys. Let
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