388 research outputs found

    Identification of TUB as a novel candidate gene influencing body weight in humans

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    Previously, we identified a locus on 11p influencing obesity in families with type 2 diabetes. Based on mouse studies, we selected TUB as a functional candidate gene and performed association studies to determine whether this controls obesity. We analyzed the genotypes of 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) around TUB in 492 unrelated type 2 diabetic patients with known BMI values. One SNP (rs1528133) was found to have a significant effect on BMI (1.54 kg/m(2), P = 0.006). This association was confirmed in a population enriched for type 2 diabetes, using 750 individuals who were not selected for type 2 diabetes. Two SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with rs1528133 and mapping to the 3' end of TUB, rs2272382, and rs2272383 also affected BMI by 1.3 kg/m2 (P = 0.016 and P = 0.010, respectively). Combined analysis confirmed this association (P = 0.005 and P = 0.002, respectively). Moreover, comparing 349 obese subjects (BMI >30 kg/m(2)) from the combined cohort with 289 normal subjects (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) revealed that the protective alleles have a lower frequency in obese subjects (odds ratio 1.32 [95% CI 1.04-1.67], P = 0.022). Altogether, data from the tubby mouse as well as these data suggest that TUB could be an important factor in controlling the central regulation of body weight in humans

    Urinary concentrations of bisphenols and parabens and their association with attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity at adolescence

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    Background: Neurobehavioural disorder diagnoses have been increasing over the last decades, leading to heightened interest in the aetiological factors involved. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as parabens and bisphenols, have been suggested as one of those factors. It is unknown whether exposure during adolescence may affect neurobehavioural development. Objective: To determine whether urinary concentrations of parabens and bisphenols are associated with attention and concentration in adolescents, in general and sex-specific.¬†Methods: We invited 188 adolescents (13‚Äď15 years old) for the follow-up birth cohort-study. Concentrations of five parabens and three bisphenols (BPA; BPF; BPS) were measured in morning urine after overnight fasting, using a validated LC-MS/MS method. Attention and concentration were assessed at the clinic with subtests of the Test of Everyday Attention in Children and the Dutch Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder questionnaire (AVL), the latter being filled in by parents. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusting for urine creatinine concentrations and potential confounding factors.Results: 101 (54%) adolescents participated (46 girls; 55 boys). Urinary paraben concentrations were higher in girls than in boys. Methylparaben was positively associated with attention in girls (p ‚ȧ .05; B= ‚ąí2.836; 95%CI= ‚ąí5.175;‚ąí.497), ethylparaben negatively with hyperactivity (p ‚ȧ .05; B= ‚ąí1.864; 95%CI= ‚ąí3.587;‚ąí.141). Butylparaben was associated with more optimal scores on parent reported attention. Propylparaben was negatively associated with scores on sustained auditory attention in girls (p ‚ȧ .10; B=.444; 95%CI= ‚ąí.009;.896). Bisphenol concentrations were not associated with scores on attention and concentration after adjusting for confounders.Conclusion: In 13‚Äď15-year-old Dutch adolescents, urinary concentrations of methylparaben and ethylparaben were associated with better attention and less hyperactivity, whereas a trend toward significance was found between higher urinary propylparaben concentrations and poorer attention. Bisphenol concentrations were not associated with attention and concentration after adjusting for confounders.</p

    Common variants of the TCF7L2 gene are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a UK-resident South Asian population

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    Background Recent studies have implicated variants of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) gene in genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in several different populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variants of this gene are also risk factors for type 2 diabetes development in a UK-resident South Asian cohort of Punjabi ancestry. Methods We genotyped four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TCF7L2 (rs7901695, rs7903146, rs11196205 and rs12255372) in 831 subjects with diabetes and 437 control subjects. Results The minor allele of each variant was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes; the greatest risk of developing the disease was conferred by rs7903146, with an allelic odds ratio (OR) of 1.31 (95% CI: 1.11 ‚Äď 1.56, p = 1.96 √ó 10-3). For each variant, disease risk associated with homozygosity for the minor allele was greater than that for heterozygotes, with the exception of rs12255372. To determine the effect on the observed associations of including young control subjects in our data set, we reanalysed the data using subsets of the control group defined by different minimum age thresholds. Increasing the minimum age of our control subjects resulted in a corresponding increase in OR for all variants of the gene (p ‚ȧ 1.04 √ó 10-7). Conclusion Our results support recent findings that TCF7L2 is an important genetic risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes in multiple ethnic groups

    Activating transcription factor 6 polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with impaired glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in dutch Caucasians

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    Context: Activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) is critical for initiation and full activation of the unfolded protein response. An association between genetic variation in ATF6 and type 2 diabetes (DM2) was recently reported in Pima Indians. Objectives: To investigate the broader significance of this association for DM2, replication studies in distinct ethic populations are required. We investigated ATF6 for its association with DM2 in Dutch Caucasians. Design/Setting: A genetic association study was conducted at an academic research laboratory. Study Participants: Two independent Dutch cohorts were studied. Cohort 1 (n = 154) was used to evaluate genetic variation in the ATF6 gene in relation to glucose homeostasis in the general population. Cohort 2 (n = 798) consisted of patients with DM2, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, and normoglycemic control subjects, and was used to investigate ATF6 polymorphisms for their contribution to disturbed glucose homeostasis and DM2. Main Outcome Measures: There were 16 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyped in all subjects of both cohorts. Those single nucleotide polymorphisms included three nonsynonymous coding variants and captured all common allelic variation of ATF6. Results: Our data show that common ATF6 variants are associated with elevated glucose levels in the general population (cohort 1, P = 0.005-0.05). Furthermore, the majority of these variants, and haplotypes thereof, were significantly associated with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and DM2 ( cohort 2, P = 0.006-0.05). Associated variants differ from those identified in Pima Indians. Conclusions: Our results strengthen the evidence that one or more variants in ATF6 are associated with disturbed glucose homeostasis and DM2

    Upstream transcription factor 1 (USF1) in risk of type 2 diabetes:Association study in 2000 Dutch Caucasians

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    Type 2 diabetes shares substantial genetic and phenotypic overlap with familial combined hyperlipidemia. Upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF7), a well-established susceptibility gene for familial combined hyperlipidemia, is postulated to be such a shared genetic determinant. We evaluated two established variants in familial combined hyperlipidemia (rs2073658 and rs3737787) for association with type 2 diabetes in two Dutch case-control samples (N=2011). The first case-control sample comprised 501 subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Breda cohort and 920 healthy blood bank donors of Dutch Caucasian origin. The second case-control sample included 211 subjects with type 2 diabetes, and 379 normoglycemic controls. SNP rs2073658 and SNP rs3737787 were in perfect linkage disequilibrium. In the first case-control sample, prevalence of the major allele was higher in patients than in controls (75% versus 71%, OR=1.25, p=0.018). A similar effect-size and -direction was observed in the second case-control sample (76% versus 72%, OR=1.22, p=0.16). A combined analysis strengthened the evidence for association (OR=1.23, p=0.006). Notably, the increased risk for type 2 diabetes could be ascribed to the major allele, and its high frequency translated to a substantial population attributable risk of 14.5%. In conclusion, the major allele of rs2073658 in the USF1 gene is associated with a modestly increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes in Dutch Caucasians, with considerable impact at the population level. (c) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

    The TCF7L2 locus and type 1 diabetes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p><it>TCF7L2 </it>belongs to a subfamily of TCF7-like HMG box-containing transcription factors, and maps to human chromosome 10q25.3. A recent study identified genetic association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with this gene, correlated with diminished insulin secretion. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of genetic association between <it>TCF7L2 </it>and type 1 diabetes (T1D).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>The SNP most significantly associated with T2D, rs7903146, was genotyped in 886 T1D nuclear family trios with ethnic backgrounds of mixed European descent.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>This study found no T1D association with, and no age-of-onset effect from rs7903146.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>This study suggests that a T2D mechanism mediated by <it>TCF7L2 </it>does not participate in the etiology of T1D.</p

    Performance of the CMS Cathode Strip Chambers with Cosmic Rays

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    The Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) constitute the primary muon tracking device in the CMS endcaps. Their performance has been evaluated using data taken during a cosmic ray run in fall 2008. Measured noise levels are low, with the number of noisy channels well below 1%. Coordinate resolution was measured for all types of chambers, and fall in the range 47 microns to 243 microns. The efficiencies for local charged track triggers, for hit and for segments reconstruction were measured, and are above 99%. The timing resolution per layer is approximately 5 ns

    Variants in Neuropeptide Y Receptor 1 and 5 Are Associated with Nutrient-Specific Food Intake and Are Under Recent Selection in Europeans

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    There is a large variation in caloric intake and macronutrient preference between individuals and between ethnic groups, and these food intake patterns show a strong heritability. The transition to new food sources during the agriculture revolution around 11,000 years ago probably created selective pressure and shaped the genome of modern humans. One major player in energy homeostasis is the appetite-stimulating hormone neuropeptide Y, in which the stimulatory capacity may be mediated by the neuropeptide Y receptors 1, 2 and 5 (NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R). We assess association between variants in the NPY1R, NPY2R and NPY5R genes and nutrient intake in a cross-sectional, single-center study of 400 men aged 40 to 80 years, and we examine whether genomic regions containing these genes show signatures of recent selection in 270 HapMap individuals (90 Africans, 90 Asians, and 90 Caucasians) and in 846 Dutch bloodbank controls. Our results show that derived alleles in NPY1R and NPY5R are associated with lower carbohydrate intake, mainly because of a lower consumption of mono- and disaccharides. We also show that carriers of these derived alleles, on average, consume meals with a lower glycemic index and glycemic load and have higher alcohol consumption. One of these variants shows the hallmark of recent selection in Europe. Our data suggest that lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low glycemic index and glycemic load, and/or higher alcohol consumption, gave a survival advantage in Europeans since the agricultural revolution. This advantage could lie in overall health benefits, because lower carbohydrate intake, consuming meals with a low GI and GL, and/or higher alcohol consumption, are known to be associated with a lower risk of chronic diseases
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