144 research outputs found

    Detection of 183 GHz water megamaser emission towards NGC 4945

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    Aim: The aim of this work is to search Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4945, a well-known 22 GHz water megamaser galaxy, for water (mega)maser emission at 183 GHz. Method: We used APEX SEPIA Band 5 to perform the observations. Results: We detected 183 GHz water maser emission towards NGC 4945 with a peak flux density of ~3 Jy near the galactic systemic velocity. The emission spans a velocity range of several hundred km/s. We estimate an isotropic luminosity of > 1000 Lsun, classifying the emission as a megamaser. A comparison of the 183 GHz spectrum with that observed at 22 GHz suggests that 183 GHz emission also arises from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) central engine. If the 183 GHz emission originates from the circumnuclear disk, then we estimate that a redshifted feature at 1084 km/s in the spectrum should arise from a distance of 0.022 pc from the supermassive black hole (1.6 x 10(5) Schwarzschild radii), i.e. closer than the water maser emission previously detected at 22 GHz. This is only the second time 183 GHz maser emission has been detected towards an AGN central engine (the other galaxy being NGC 3079). It is also the strongest extragalactic millimetre/submillimetre water maser detected to date. Conclusions: Strong millimetre 183 GHz water maser emission has now been shown to occur in an external galaxy. For NGC 4945, we believe that the maser emission arises, or is dominated by, emission from the AGN central engine. Emission at higher velocity, i.e. for a Keplerian disk closer to the black hole, has been detected at 183 GHz compared with that for the 22 GHz megamaser. This indicates that millimetre/submillimetre water masers can indeed be useful probes for tracing out more of AGN central engine structures and dynamics than previously probed. Future observations using ALMA Band 5 should unequivocally determine the origin of the emission in this and other galaxies.Comment: 4 pages, accepted by A&A Letter

    Transcriptome Analyses of Mosaic (MSC) Mitochondrial Mutants of Cucumber in a Highly Inbred Nuclear Background.

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    Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) has a large, paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome. Cucumber plants regenerated from cell cultures occasionally show paternally transmitted mosaic (MSC) phenotypes, characterized by slower growth, chlorotic patterns on the leaves and fruit, lower fertility, and rearrangements in their mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs). MSC lines 3, 12, and 16 originated from different cell cultures all established using the highly inbred, wild-type line B. These MSC lines possess different rearrangements and under-represented regions in their mtDNAs. We completed RNA-seq on normalized and non-normalized cDNA libraries from MSC3, MSC12, and MSC16 to study their nuclear gene-expression profiles relative to inbred B. Results from both libraries indicated that gene expression in MSC12 and MSC16 were more similar to each other than MSC3. Forty-one differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were upregulated and one downregulated in the MSC lines relative to B. Gene functional classifications revealed that more than half of these DEGs are associated with stress-response pathways. Consistent with this observation, we detected elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide throughout leaf tissue in all MSC lines compared to wild-type line B. These results demonstrate that independently produced MSC lines with different mitochondrial polymorphisms show unique and shared nuclear responses. This study revealed genes associated with stress response that could become selection targets to develop cucumber cultivars with increased stress tolerance, and further support of cucumber as a model plant to study nuclear-mitochondrial interactions

    A Swedish heterodyne facility instrument for the APEX telescope

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    In March 2008, the APEX facility instrument was installed on the telescope at the site of Lliano Chajnantor in northern Chile. The main objective of the paper is to introduce the new instrument to the radio astronomical community. It describes the hardware configuration and presents some initial results from the on-sky commissioning. The heterodyne instrument covers frequencies between 211 GHz and 1390 GHz divided into four bands. The first three bands are sideband-separating mixers operating in a single sideband mode and based on superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions. The fourth band is a hot-electron bolometer, waveguide balanced mixer. All bands are integrated in a closedcycle temperature-stabilized cryostat and are cooled to 4 K. We present results from noise temperature, sideband separation ratios, beam, and stability measurements performed on the telescope as a part of the receiver technical commissioning. Examples of broad extragalactic lines are also included

    SEPIA345: A 345 GHz dual polarization heterodyne receiver channel for SEPIA at the APEX telescope

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    Context. We describe the new SEPIA345 heterodyne receiver channel installed at the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) telescope, including details of its configuration, characteristics, and test results on sky. SEPIA345 is designed and built to be a part of the Swedish ESO PI Instrument for the APEX telescope (SEPIA). This new receiver channel is suitable for very high-resolution spectroscopy and covers the frequency range 272- 376 GHz. It utilizes a dual polarization sideband separating (2SB) receiver architecture, employing superconductor-isolator-superconductor mixers (SIS), and provides an intermediate frequency (IF) band of 4- 12 GHz for each sideband and polarization, thus covering a total instantaneous IF bandwidth of 4 \uc3\uc2 - 8 = 32 GHz. Aims. This paper provides a description of the new receiver in terms of its hardware design, performance, and commissioning results. Methods. The methods of design, construction, and testing of the new receiver are presented. Results. The achieved receiver performance in terms of noise temperature, sideband rejection, stability, and other parameters are described. Conclusions. SEPIA345 is a commissioned APEX facility instrument with state-of-the-art wideband IF performance. It has been available on the APEX telescope for science observations since July 2021

    Educação integral, institucionalização do tempo livre: outras lógicas educacionais no contexto Luso-Brasileiro

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    A finalidade principal do presente artigo √© refletir sobre os debates que circundam a educa√ß√£o integral. Baseado em revis√£o bibliogr√°fica de estudos espec√≠ficos sobre essa tem√°tica, prop√Ķe um breve di√°logo entre concep√ß√Ķes de educa√ß√£o integral no Brasil e em Portugal, articulando-as com propostas no campo da educa√ß√£o n√£o formal. S√£o apresentadas observa√ß√Ķes sobre as peculiaridades da educa√ß√£o integral em ambos os pa√≠ses, atentos para outros jeitos de organizar o processo educacional, escapando de uma √ļnica l√≥gica e do risco de institucionaliza√ß√£o cada vez maior do tempo livre.The main purpose of the article is to reflect on the debates surrounding full-time education, and based on a bibliographical review of specific studies on the subject, to propose a brief dialogue between the conceptions of full-time education in Brazil and Portugal, articulating them with proposals in the field of non-formal education. Observations on the peculiarities of full-time education in both countries are presented here, attentive to other ways of organizing the educational process, escaping from a single logic and the risk of institutionalization of free time. Keywords: Full-time education; Non-formal and informal education; Community interventio

    The Herschel-Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI): instrument and pre-launch testing

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    This paper describes the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI), to be launched onboard of ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, by 2008. It includes the first results from the instrument level tests. The instrument is designed to be electronically tuneable over a wide and continuous frequency range in the Far Infrared, with velocity resolutions better than 0.1 km/s with a high sensitivity. This will enable detailed investigations of a wide variety of astronomical sources, ranging from solar system objects, star formation regions to nuclei of galaxies. The instrument comprises 5 frequency bands covering 480-1150 GHz with SIS mixers and a sixth dual frequency band, for the 1410-1910 GHz range, with Hot Electron Bolometer Mixers (HEB). The Local Oscillator (LO) subsystem consists of a dedicated Ka-band synthesizer followed by 7 times 2 chains of frequency multipliers, 2 chains for each frequency band. A pair of Auto-Correlators and a pair of Acousto-Optic spectrometers process the two IF signals from the dual-polarization front-ends to provide instantaneous frequency coverage of 4 GHz, with a set of resolutions (140 kHz to 1 MHz), better than < 0.1 km/s. After a successful qualification program, the flight instrument was delivered and entered the testing phase at satellite level. We will also report on the pre-flight test and calibration results together with the expected in-flight performance
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