798 research outputs found

    A Hybrid Approach to the Valuation of Climate Change Effects on Ecosystem Services: Evidence from the European Forests

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    In this paper we present a systematic attempt to assess economic value of climate change impact on forest ecosystems and human welfare. In the present study, climate change impacts are downscaled to the different European countries, which in turn constitute the elements of our analysis. First, we anchor the valuation exercise in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) Approach and therefore the link between the different forest ecosystem goods and services, including provisioning, regulating and cultural services, human well-being and climate change. Second, climate change is operationalized by exploring the different storylines developed by the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and applied, downscaled, for each of the European countries under consideration. Third, and bearing in mind the different nature of the benefits provided by the different types of forest ecosystems under examination, we shall explore different economic valuation methodologies so as to shed light on the magnitude of the involved welfare changes. According to the estimation results the four different IPCC scenarios, i.e. A1F1, A2, B1 and B2, are associated to different welfare impacts. First, these reveal to depend on both the nature of the forest ecosystem service. For example, cultural values reveal to be more sensitive to the four IPCC scenarios than the other ones, with the wood forest products being more resilient to climate change. Second, the distributional impacts of climate change on the provision of these goods and services do also depend on the geo-climatic regions under consideration. For the Scandinavian group of countries, B1 is ranked with the highest level of provision of carbon sequestration services, amounting to 46.3 billion dollars. In addition, we can see that cultural services provided by forest ecosystems have their highest levels in the Mediterranean countries, ranging from 8.4 to 9.0 million dollars, respectively in the B2 and B1 scenarios. Finally, we can see that the total value of wood forest products ranges between 41.2 and 47.5 million dollars for Central Europe to 5.4 and 7.2 million dollars in Northern Europe, respectively A1 and A2 scenarios. For this service, Mediterranean Europe provides a relatively weak role in the provision with values ranging from 6.4 million dollars in A1 scenario to 8.7 million dollars in the B2. In short, and to conclude, the valuation results (1) may contribute to a better understanding of the potential welfare loss in the context of climate change and the economic trade-offs between potential mitigation or adaptation strategies; and (2) confirm that climate change will be responsible for a re-distribution of welfare among the European countries, signalling the potential for a(n) agreement(s) among these same countries focus on the re-allocation of potential trade-offs among the countries.Wood Products, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Market and Non-market Valuation Methods, Ecosystem Goods and Services, Millennium Ecosystem Assessment

    Pulmonary capillary pressures during the acute respiratory distress syndrome

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    Objectives: (1)To describe the evolution of pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) and of the pressure drop across the pulmonary venous bed from early to established acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), (2) to assess Pcap under different levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and (3) to compare the visual method and a mathematical model to determine Pcap. Design: Prospective, intervention study. Setting: Intensive care unit in a teaching institution. Patients: Nine ARDS patients, according to the ARDS Consensus Conference criteria. Interventions: Pulmonary arterial pressures were measured during routine respiratory mechanics measurements throughout ARDS. Four PEEP levels (6, 9, 12 and 15cmH2O) were studied. Measurements and results: Pulmonary artery occlusions were made in triplicate at each PEEP level. Pcap was determined for every occlusion trace by three observers (visual method) and a mathematical model. Diastolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAPd) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP) were measured. The visually determined Pcap showed a bias of 2.5±2.1mmHg as compared to the mathematical estimation. PAPd, Pcap and PAOP tended to decrease from early to late ARDS (p=0.128, 0.265, 0.121). Pcap−PAOP (6.3±2.7mmHg) did not change throughout ARDS. Higher PEEP levels were associated with increased PAPd, Pcap and PAOP, as well as with larger Pcap−PAOP throughout ARDS. Conclusions: Pulmonary capillary pressure cannot be predicted from PAOP during early and established ARDS. The high variability in Pcap−PAOP increases the risk for underestimation of filtration pressures and consequently the risk for lung edema. Pcap can be estimated at the bedside by either the visual or mathematical method


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    The author reports some of her experiences with Augusto Boal in the early 80’s of the 20th centur, when the director returned to Brazil to create a Popular Theater Factory in Rio de Janeiro. The article emphasizes some of Boal’s artistic and  political actions in this period. Based on her memories and on some documents of the foundation of the Center of the Theater of the Oppressed in Rio (CTO-Rio), the author makes a historical report and pays homage to the world famous theater director who died recently.A autora recorre a sua experiĂȘncia direta com Augusto Boal, falecido em maio de 2009, e relata algumas realizaçÔes do teatrĂłlogo quando de sua volta ao Brasil em meados da dĂ©cada de 80 do sĂ©culo passado. Ilustrado com exemplos colhidos em sua memĂłria, com apontamentos pessoais e documentos da Ă©poca, o texto presta uma homenagem ao diretor

    Carmelo Bene, une machine de guerre bégayante

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    O artigo apresenta uma das temĂĄticas suscitadas pela pesquisa, ainda em andamento, da obra do artista italiano Carmelo Bene. A autora retoma uma relação que jĂĄ havia feito, no inĂ­cio da pesquisa, entre o conceito beneano de mĂĄquina atorial e o conceito deleuzeguattariano de mĂĄquina de guerra, acrescentando-lhe elementos de uma abordagem da gagueira em Gilles Deleuze e de materiais e experiĂȘncias colhidos em pesquisas de campo na ItĂĄlia e na França nos Ășltimos trĂȘs anos. A pesquisa teve por objetivo inicial um estudo dos conceitos que Carmelo Bene criou em cena, buscando uma aproximação ao que havia de original em sua obra. A partir do conhecimento da multiplicidade de alianças teĂłricas e artĂ­sticas de Bene, impĂŽs-se a necessidade de interrogar e contaminar os prĂłprios modos de pesquisa e escrita, estabelecendo-se uma produção por fragmentos e aproximaçÔes, dentre os quais o presente texto Ă© uma tentativaThis article presents one of the topics raised by the research in progress on the work of the Italian artist Carmelo Bene. The author resumes a relation already made at the beginning of the research between the Benean actorial machine and the Deleuzean-Guattarian war machine, adding elements from an approach of stuttering in Gilles Deleuze, as well as from materials and experiences collected in the field research developed in Italy and France along the last three years. The initial goal of the research was to study the concepts that Carmelo Bene created in scene, seeking a closeness to what was original in his work. From the observation of the multiplicity of Bene’s theoretical and artistic alliances, it became necessary to interrogate and contaminate the research and writing modes themselves, establishing a production by means of fragments and closeness, being this text one of them.Cet article presente l’un des sujets soulevĂ©s par la recherche de l’oeuvre de l’artiste italien Carmelo Bene, toujours en cours. L’auteur reprend une relation qu’elle avait faite au dĂ©but de sa recherche entre la machine actorielle bĂ©nĂ©enne et la machine de guerre deleuze-guattarienne, en les ajoutant un abordage du bĂ©gayage chez Deleuze et par le biais de matĂ©riels et d’expĂ©riences recueillis lors de recherches de terrain menĂ©es en Italie et en France depuis 2014. La recherche avait comme objectif initial une Ă©tude des concepts que Carmelo Bene avait crĂ©Ă©s sur la scene, en cherchant ce qui Ă©tait original dans son travail. La connaissance de la multiplicitĂ© des aliances thĂ©oriques et artistiques de Bene imposait la necessite d’interroger et de contaminer les propres modes de recherche et d’écrite, Ă©tablissant une production par fragments et approximations dont le prĂ©sent texte en est une tentative

    Relations between the verbal and visual in the infographics

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    In this paper, we analyze the functioning of verbal and visual in the space of journalistic discourse. We observe that the materiality significant of the visual infographic introduces flaws in the ideological ritual of journalistic writing, because there is an imaginary that with the image the information becomes true, real. In this imagery, we realized the failure of language that requires the image to manage and maintain the world semantically normal.KEYWORDS: journalistic discourse. Ideology. Language. Infographic.Neste trabalho, nós analisamos o funcionamento do verbal e do visual no espaço do discurso jornalístico. Nós observamos que a materialidade significante visual do infogråfico instaura falhas no ritual ideológico da escrita jornalística, pois hå um imaginårio que, com a imagem, a informação se tornaria mais fiel, real. Neste imaginårio, nós percebemos uma falha da língua, que necessita da imagem para administrar sentidos e manter o mundo semanticamente normal.PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Discurso jornalístico. Ideologia. Língua. Infogråfico. ABSTRACT In this paper, we analyze the functioning of verbal and visual in the space of journalistic discourse. We observe that the materiality significant of the visual infographic introduces flaws in the ideological ritual of journalistic writing, because there is an imaginary that with the image the information becomes true, real. In this imagery, we realized the failure of language that requires the image to manage and maintain the world semantically normal.KEYWORDS: journalistic discourse. Ideology. Language. Infographic


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    The relationship between verbal and visual materiality in printed infographics is provided. The manner the verbal significant updates certain discursive memories may be understood when related to the visual significant is thus investigated. Whereas the object under investigation is an infographic of the magazine Saúde titled The virus that combats viruses; the analysis, which is based on a materialist theoretical stance, triggers the notions of memory and materiality. Content effect reiterates the functioning of the linguistic sign through the language’s literality within the word-thing relationship and it establishes itself within the visual stance while producing faithful effects with the real. When one investigates the manner discursive memory performs the relationship between the verbal and the visual in infographics, one understands that this relationship is established within the context of incompleteness of the above-mentioned types of materiality. It also occurs within the equivocation that verbal materiality may be complemented by the visual or that the image may faithfully represent the real. The formulation of infographics demands-updates-reaffirms a verbal faithfulness with the visual within a content relationship. Verbal interweaving (in explicatory graphics) with images (the visual) produces meaning effects that project language as an instrument, ideal in its transparency, and literally reveals the thing to which it refers.Estudamos a relação entre a materialidade verbal e a materialidade visual no infográfico impresso com o objetivo de compreender como a forma significante verbal se relaciona e atualiza, discursivamente, uma determinada memória, na relação com a forma significante visual. O objeto de estudo é um infográfico da revista Saúde que tem como título O vírus que combate vírus, a análise, sustentada numa posição teórica materialista, põe em funcionamento as noções de memória e materialidade. O efeito de conteúdo reitera o funcionamento do signo lingüístico pela literalidade da linguagem na relação palavra-coisa e se instala, também, no visual, produzindo efeitos de fidelidade do real. Quando perguntamos como a memória discursiva trabalha, no infográfico, a relação entre o verbal e o visual? Compreendemos que essa relação se constitui na incompletude dessas materialidades e no equívoco de se imaginar que a materialidade verbal pode ser complementada pela visual ou que a imagem pode representar fielmente o real. Compreendemos que a formulação do infográfico produz efeitos que demandam-atualizam-reafirmam uma fidelidade do verbal numa relação conteudística com o visual. A intrincação do verbal (em forma de recortes explicativos) à imagem (o visual) produz efeitos de sentidos que projetam uma concepção de língua como instrumento, ideal em sua transparência, e que designaria, literalmente, a coisa a que se refere

    Estudo da integração entre os mercados através de índices de açÔes

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    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-EconÎmico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Economia