13 research outputs found

    Physical Exercise With Music Maintains Activities of Daily Living in Patients With Dementia: Mihama-kiho Project Part 2

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    Background: Recent studies suggest that combined non-pharmacological interventions are more beneficial than single interventions for primary and secondary prevention of dementia. We previously reported enhanced effects of physical exercise with music (ExM) on cognitive function in normal elderly people compared to exercise alone. Objective: To identify if ExM improves cognitive function and activities of daily livings (ADLs) in dementia patients over cognitive stimulation (CS). Methods: We enrolled 85 patients with mild to moderate dementia. Forty-three subjects performed ExM developed by the Yamaha Music Foundation, and 42 subjects performed cognitive stimulation using portable game consoles and drills involving easy calculations, mazes, and mistake-searching in pictures. Interventions were performed once a week for 40 minutes. Before and after the six-month intervention, patients were assessed using neuropsychological batteries, and ADLs were assessed by patients’ caregivers using the functional independence measure (FIM). Voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer’s disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy. Results: Twenty-three subjects dropped out during the intervention. Thirty-one patients from each group were analyzed. Post-intervention, both groups showed significantly improved visuospatial function. Significant benefits were observed in psychomotor speed or memory in the ExM or CS groups, respectively. FIM scores, reflecting ADLs, and VSRAD scores were significantly preserved in the ExM group, but significantly worsened in the CS group. Conclusions: ExM produced greater positive effects on cognitive function and ADLs in patients with mild to moderate dementia than CS, excluding memory. Optimal interventions for dementia will likely be achieved by combining ExMand CS. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved

    Cognitive Function and Brain Atrophy Predict Non-pharmacological Efficacy in Dementia: The Mihama-Kiho Scan Project2

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    We aimed to determine whether neuropsychological deficits and brain atrophy could predict the efficacy of non-pharmacological interventions. Forty-six participants with mild-to-moderate dementia were monitored for 6 months; 25 underwent an intervention involving physical exercise with music, and 21 performed cognitive stimulation tasks. Participants were categorized into improvement (IMP) and no-IMP subgroups. In the exercise-with-music group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test at baseline. In the cognitive-stimulation group, the no-IMP subgroup performed worse than the IMP subgroup on Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices and the cognitive functional independence measure at baseline. In the no-IMP subgroup, voxel-based morphometric analysis at baseline revealed more extensive gray matter loss in the anterior cingulate gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus in the exercise-with-music and cognitive-stimulation groups, respectively. Participants with mild-to-moderate dementia with cognitive decline and extensive cortical atrophy are less likely to show improved cognitive function after non-pharmaceutical therapy

    The Effects of Physical Exercise with Music on Cognitive Function of Elderly People: Mihama-Kiho Project

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    <div><p>Background</p><p>Physical exercise has positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people. It is unknown, however, if combinations of non-pharmaceutical interventions can produce more benefits than single ones. This study aimed to identify if physical exercise combined with music improves cognitive function in normal elderly people more than exercise alone.</p><p>Methods</p><p>We enrolled 119 subjects (age 65–84 years old). Forty subjects performed physical exercise (once a week for an hour with professional trainers) with musical accompaniment (ExM group), developed by YAMAHA Music Foundation; 40 subjects performed the same exercise without music (Ex group); 39 subjects were the control group (Cont group). Before and after the year-long intervention, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries. MRIs were performed before and after intervention; the Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) was used to assess medial temporal lobe atrophy.</p><p>Results</p><p>Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was significant only in visuospatial function. The multiple comparison (ExM vs. Ex, ExM vs. Cont, Ex vs. Cont) was significant between the ExM and Cont group. Intra-group analyses before and after intervention revealed significant improvement in visuospatial function in the ExM group, and significant improvements in other batteries in all three groups. The VSRAD score significantly worsened in the ExM and Ex groups.</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Physical exercise combined with music produced more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than exercise alone. We attributed this improvement to the multifaceted nature of combining physical exercise with music, which can act simultaneously as both cognitive and physical training.</p><p>Trial Registration</p><p>UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) <a href="https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr/ctr.cgi?function=brows&action=brows&recptno=R000014201&type=summary&language=J" target="_blank">UMIN000012148</a></p></div

    Physical Exercise with Music Reduces Gray and White Matter Loss in the Frontal Cortex of Elderly People: The Mihama-Kiho Scan Project

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    Findings from previous studies suggest that physical exercise combined with cognitive training produces more positive effects on cognitive function in elderly people than physical exercise alone. However, the brain plasticity associated with these proposed benefits of combined therapy has not yet been investigated in elderly subjects. We hypothesized that the dual task group would experience greater benefits than the physical exercise alone and non-exercise control groups with regard to both cognitive function and brain plasticity. This study investigated the effect of physical exercise with musical accompaniment on structural brain changes in healthy elderly people. Fifty-one participants performed physical exercise (once a week for an hour with professional trainers) with musical accompaniment (ExM), 61 participants performed the same exercise without music (Ex), and 32 participants made up the non-exercise group (Cont). After the 1-year intervention, visuospatial functioning of the ExM but not the Ex group was significantly better than that of the Cont group. Voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that the ExM group showed greater right superior frontal gyrus volume and preserved volumes of the right anterior cingulate gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and insula. These results indicate that compared with exercise alone, physical exercise with music induces greater positive effects on cognitive function and leads to subtle neuroanatomical changes in the brains of elderly people. Therefore, physical exercise with music may be a beneficial intervention to delay age-related cognitive decline

    Results of intra-group analyses before and after the intervention.

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    <p>Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group, LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease, WF: word fluency, bold letters: significant.</p

    Characteristics of the ExM, Ex, and control groups.

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    <p>ADL: activity of daily life, edu: education,</p><p>Ex: physical exercise without music, ExM: physical exercise with music.</p><p>F: female, M: male, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination.</p><p>sd: standard deviation.</p

    Results from the analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the extent of changes before and after intervention in the three groups.

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    A<p>: 1 way ANOVA,</p>B<p>: Kruskal-Wallis test, Cont: control group, Ex: exercise group, ExM: exercise with music group; LM: logical memory, MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination, RCPM: Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, sd: standard deviation, TMT: Trail-Making Test, VSRAD: Voxel-based Specific Regional analysis system for Alzheimer's Disease; WF: word fluency; bold letters: significant.</p
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