111 research outputs found

    Feature Trajectory Dynamic Time Warping for Clustering of Speech Segments

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    Dynamic time warping (DTW) can be used to compute the similarity between two sequences of generally differing length. We propose a modification to DTW that performs individual and independent pairwise alignment of feature trajectories. The modified technique, termed feature trajectory dynamic time warping (FTDTW), is applied as a similarity measure in the agglomerative hierarchical clustering of speech segments. Experiments using MFCC and PLP parametrisations extracted from TIMIT and from the Spoken Arabic Digit Dataset (SADD) show consistent and statistically significant improvements in the quality of the resulting clusters in terms of F-measure and normalised mutual information (NMI).Comment: 10 page

    Deep Transfer Learning based COVID-19 Detection in Cough, Breath and Speech using Bottleneck Features

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    We present an experimental investigation into the automatic detection of COVID-19 from coughs, breaths and speech as this type of screening is non-contact, does not require specialist medical expertise or laboratory facilities and can easily be deployed on inexpensive consumer hardware. Smartphone recordings of cough, breath and speech from subjects around the globe are used for classification by seven standard machine learning classifiers using leave-pp-out cross-validation to provide a promising baseline performance. Then, a diverse dataset of 10.29 hours of cough, sneeze, speech and noise audio recordings are used to pre-train a CNN, LSTM and Resnet50 classifier and fine tuned the model to enhance the performance even further. We have also extracted the bottleneck features from these pre-trained models by removing the final-two layers and used them as an input to the LR, SVM, MLP and KNN classifiers to detect COVID-19 signature. The highest AUC of 0.98 was achieved using a transfer learning based Resnet50 architecture on coughs from Coswara dataset. The highest AUC of 0.94 and 0.92 was achieved from an SVM run on the bottleneck features extracted from the breaths from Coswara dataset and speech recordings from ComParE dataset. We conclude that among all vocal audio, coughs carry the strongest COVID-19 signature followed by breath and speech and using transfer learning improves the classifier performance with higher AUC and lower variance across the cross-validation folds. Although these signatures are not perceivable by human ear, machine learning based COVID-19 detection is possible from vocal audio recorded via smartphone

    TB or not TB? Acoustic cough analysis for tuberculosis classification

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    In this work, we explore recurrent neural network architectures for tuberculosis (TB) cough classification. In contrast to previous unsuccessful attempts to implement deep architectures in this domain, we show that a basic bidirectional long short-term memory network (BiLSTM) can achieve improved performance. In addition, we show that by performing greedy feature selection in conjunction with a newly-proposed attention-based architecture that learns patient invariant features, substantially better generalisation can be achieved compared to a baseline and other considered architectures. Furthermore, this attention mechanism allows an inspection of the temporal regions of the audio signal considered to be important for classification to be performed. Finally, we develop a neural style transfer technique to infer idealised inputs which can subsequently be analysed. We find distinct differences between the idealised power spectra of TB and non-TB coughs, which provide clues about the origin of the features in the audio signal.Comment: Accepted for publication at Interspeech 202