3,057 research outputs found

    PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVE EXTRACT OF Amaranthus spinosus

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    Communication in Physical Sciences 5(1):42-45 Authors: Rabiu Nasir, Haruna Saeed Alhassan, Ahmed Abubakar &Yusuf Ibrahim  Received 14 March 2020/Accepted 02 April 2020 Identification of the constituents of Amaranthus spinosus was carried out using ethanol extract of the dried leaf of the plant. Microbial detection of zone of inhibition was also carried out. The extract yield from the leaves was 17.40 g while phytochemical screening indicated the presence of saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids and glycosides in the leaf extract. The antimicrobial assay indicated that methanolic extract of the plant were slightly active against the test isolates with the extract being more active against Staphylococcus aureus (15mm), Aspergillus flavus (15mm), E. coli. (13mm) and Mucor spp (10mm). Hence methanol extract of this plant has potent medical values. References Das, S. (2012). Systematics and taxonomic Delimitations of vegetable grain and weed amaranths: a morphological and bio-chemical approach. Genet Recourses Crop Evolution, 59, pp. 289-303. Hussain, Z., Amresh, G., Singh, S., & Rao, C. V. (2009). Anti-diarrhea and antiulcer activity of Amaranthus spinosus in experimental animals. Pharmaceutical Biology, 47, 10, pp. 932–939. Ishrat, J., B., Laizuman, N., Farhana, A. R. & Obaydul, H. (2011). Antibacterial cytotoxic an antioxidant Activity of chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract of plant Amaranthus spinosus. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, 3,3, pp. 1675-1680 Jamaluddin, A.T. M, Qais N., Ali, M. A., Howlader, M. A., Shams-Ud-Doha, K. M., & Sarker A.A. (2011). Analgesic activities of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus. Linn. International Journal of Drug Development and research, 3,4, pp. 189-193. Manik B., Ankur D., Subrata C., & Pranabesh C. (2011).Pharmacognostic studies on stem and leave of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 2,1, pp.41-47.  Mitra, P. K. (2013). Comparative evaluation of anti gastric ulcer Activity of root, stem and leaves of Amaranthus spinosus Linn in rats. International Journal of Herbal medicine, 1, 2, pp. 1675-1680. Srivastava, S., Singh, P., Mishra, G., Jha, , K. K. & Khosa, R. .L. (2011). Costus Speciosus (Keukand): A review Der. Pharmacis Sinica, . 2, 1, pp. 118-128. Vadnere, G., Pathan A., Kulkarni B., & Abhay K. S. (2013). Abutilons indicum Linn: A Phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, 3, 1, pp. 153-156

    Methyl esters selectivity of transesterification reaction with homogenous alkaline catalyst to produce biodiesel in batch, plug flow, and continuous stirred tank reactors

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    Selectivity concept is essential in establishing the best operating conditions for attaining maximum production of the desired product. For complex reaction such as biodiesel fuel synthesis, kinetic studies of transesterification reaction have revealed the mechanism of the reaction and rate constants. The objectives of this research are to develop the kinetic parameters for determination of methyl esters and glycerol selectivity, evaluate the significance of the reverse reaction in transesterification reaction, and examine the influence of reaction characteristics (reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, and the amount of catalyst) on selectivity. For this study, published reaction rate constants of transesterification reaction were used to develop mathematical expressions for selectivities. In order to examine the base case and reversible transesterification, two calculation schemes (Case 1 and Case 2) were established. An enhanced selectivity was found in the base case of transesterification reaction. The selectivity was greatly improved at optimum reaction temperature (60 C), molar ratio (9 : 1), catalyst concentration (1.5 wt.%), and low free fatty acid feedstock. Further research might explore the application of selectivity for specifying reactor configurations

    Methyl esters selectivity of transesterification reaction with homogenous alkaline catalyst to produce biodiesel in batch, plug flow, and continuous stirred tank reactors

    Get PDF
    Selectivity concept is essential in establishing the best operating conditions for attaining maximum production of the desired product. For complex reaction such as biodiesel fuel synthesis, kinetic studies of transesterification reaction have revealed the mechanism of the reaction and rate constants. The objectives of this research are to develop the kinetic parameters for determination of methyl esters and glycerol selectivity, evaluate the significance of the reverse reaction in transesterification reaction, and examine the influence of reaction characteristics (reaction temperature, methanol to oil molar ratio, and the amount of catalyst) on selectivity. For this study, published reaction rate constants of transesterification reaction were used to develop mathematical expressions for selectivities. In order to examine the base case and reversible transesterification, two calculation schemes (Case 1 and Case 2) were established. An enhanced selectivity was found in the base case of transesterification reaction. The selectivity was greatly improved at optimum reaction temperature (60 C), molar ratio (9 : 1), catalyst concentration (1.5 wt.%), and low free fatty acid feedstock. Further research might explore the application of selectivity for specifying reactor configurations

    A Pragmatics Implicature Function of Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump Presidential Debate

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    The problem in this thesis is the utterances by the candidate of presidential debate Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump to get the support from the audience and can be a President of America. The candidates give suggestion and negative comment  for the audience that he or she was the best to be a president of America. In this writing, The writer use qualitative method of collecting data because of the element that used come from textual material, which data collected with utilize all of the information and the relevant thought. The writer use library research that kinds of qualitative method for analyze the data. Sarwono (2006:226) mention that library research use for analyze from textual data with systematically. In the writer point of view, this method is correctly use for analyzing this proposal. The writer will collect the data and categorized the primary data to secondary data with used pragmatics implicature function that is assertive function, directive function and expressive function and choose only some of the data for sampling. The results of research in this thesis are the function of pragmatics implcature that was used the most is expressive function. From three presidential debate if Hillary Clinton and Donald trump.     &nbsp

    Live in Destiny or Die as Martyr: the Venture of Front Pembela Islam (Fpi) in Contemporary Indonesia

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    Book Review:Book title:Defending the Majesty of Islam: Indonesia\u27s Front Pembela Islam, 1998-2003Author:Jajang JahroniNo. of Pages:vii + 72Year:2008Publisher:University of Washington Pres

    Pengaruh Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi dan Pengendalian Intern terhadap Kinerja Instansi Pemerintah ( Studi pada Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah Kabupaten Kampar )

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Pengaruh Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi danPengendalian Intern terhadap Kinerja Instansi Pemerintah Kabupaten Kampar. Penelitian inidilakukan pada 55 Satuan Kerja Perangkat Daerah Kabupaten Kampar. Penelitian ini dilakukandengan menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan pendekatan survey. Pengumpulan data primerdilakukan dengan memberikan kuesioner kepada kepala SKPD di lingkungan Pemerintah KabupatenKampar.Pengolahan dan analisis data menggunakan analisis regresi linear berganda dengan bantuan softwareSPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution). Pengujian data yang digunakan untuk regresi linearberganda adalah uji kualitas data dan uji asumsi klasik.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi tidak berpengaruh terhadapKinerja Instansi Pemerintah dengan nilai koefisien regresi sebesar 0,063 dengan signifikansi 0,177(alpha 0,05). Pengendalian Intern memiliki pengaruh positif terhadap Kinerja Instansi Pemerintahdengan koefisien regresi 0,068 dan signifikansi 0,008 (alpha 0,05). Sedangkan nilai R square yaitusebesar 0,174 yang berarti sebesar 17,4% variabel independen dalam penelitian ini mampumempengaruhi variabel dependen

    Hubungan Antara Hasil Belajar Kompetensi Menggambar Teknik Mesin Dengan Hasil Belajar Mompetensi Proses Pekerjaan Membubut

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    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui: seberapa besar nilai hasil belajar kompetensi menggambar teknik mesin, seberapa besar ketrampilan pekerjaan membubut, dan seberapa besar tingkat hubungan antara kompetensi menggambar teknik mesin terhadap kompetensi proses pekerjaan membubut. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas XI SMK Negeri 1 Adiwerna, Kab. Tegal jurusan teknik pemesinan yang berjumlah 32 siswa. Penentuan sampel dilakukan dengan teknik simple random sampling berdasarkan proporsi. Metode pengumpulan data dengan tes dan dokumentasi. Analisis data yang digunakan yaitu teknik analisis deskriptif dan teknik analisis regresi sederhana. Hasil analisis deskriptif menunjukan bahwa hasil belajar kompetensi menggambar teknik mesin termasuk dalam kategori sangat baik dengan hanya 3 siswa yang tidak mencapai KKM. Sedangkan untuk nilai hasil belajar kompetensi proses pekerjaan membubut juga dalam kategori sangat baik dimana siswa yang tidak mencapai KKM hanya 5 siswa. Hasil analisis regresi diperoleh nilai F = 105.104, sig = 0,000, yang berarti terdapat hubungan antara hasil belajar kompetensi menggambar teknik mesin terhadap hasil belajar kompetensi proses pekerjaan membubut. Berdasarkan hasil uji pengaruh menunjukan bahwa hasil belajar menggambar teknik mesin berpengaruh kuat terhadap hasil belajar proses pekerjaan membubut sebesar 77,8%
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