6,954 research outputs found

    Effect of cation size variance on spin and orbital order in Eu1x_{1-x}(La0.254_{0.254}Y0.746_{0.746})x_{x}VO3_3

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    We have investigated the RR-ion (RR = rare earth or Y) size variance effect on spin/orbital order in Eu1x_{1-x}(La0.254_{0.254}Y0.746_{0.746})x_{x}VO3_3. The size variance disturbs one-dimensional orbital correlation in CC-type spin/GG-type orbital ordered states and suppresses this spin/orbital order. In contrast, it stabilizes the other spin/orbital order. The results of neutron and resonant X-ray scattering denote that in the other ordered phase, the spin/orbital patterns are GG-type/CC-type, respectively.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, accepted to Rapid Communication in Physical Review

    Gravitational Radiation from a Naked Singularity -- Odd-Parity Perturbation --

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    It has been suggested that a naked singularity may be a good candidate for a strong gravitational wave burster. The naked singularity occurs in the generic collapse of an inhomogeneous dust ball. We study odd-parity mode of gravitational waves from a naked singularity of the Lema\^{\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi space-time. The wave equation for gravitational waves are solved by numerical integration using the single null coordinate. The result is that the naked singularity is not a strong source of the odd-parity gravitational radiation although the metric perturbation grows in the central region. Therefore, the Cauchy horizon in this space-time would be marginally stable against odd-parity perturbations.Comment: 14 pages, 7 figures, to be published in Prog. Theor. Phys. Final version, with minor changes. Reference 13 adde

    Can Gravitational Waves Prevent Inflation?

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    To investigate the cosmic no hair conjecture, we analyze numerically 1-dimensional plane symmetrical inhomogeneities due to gravitational waves in vacuum spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant. Assuming periodic gravitational pulse waves initially, we study the time evolution of those waves and the nature of their collisions. As measures of inhomogeneity on each hypersurface, we use the 3-dimensional Riemann invariant I (3) ⁣Rijkl (3) ⁣Rijkl{\cal I}\equiv {}~^{(3)\!}R_{ijkl}~^{(3)\!}R^{ijkl} and the electric and magnetic parts of the Weyl tensor. We find a temporal growth of the curvature in the waves' collision region, but the overall expansion of the universe later overcomes this effect. No singularity appears and the result is a ``no hair" de Sitter spacetime. The waves we study have amplitudes between 0.020ΛI1/2125.0Λ0.020\Lambda \leq {\cal I}^{1/2} \leq 125.0\Lambda and widths between 0.080lHl2.5lH0.080l_H \leq l \leq 2.5l_H, where lH=(Λ/3)1/2l_H=(\Lambda/3)^{-1/2}, the horizon scale of de Sitter spacetime. This supports the cosmic no hair conjecture.Comment: LaTeX, 11 pages, 3 figures are available on request <To [email protected] (Hisa-aki SHINKAI)>, WU-AP/29/9

    Gravitational Radiation from a Naked Singularity. II - Even-Parity Perturbation -

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    A naked singularity occurs in the generic collapse of an inhomogeneous dust ball. We study the even-parity mode of gravitational waves from a naked singularity of the Lema\^{\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi spacetime. The wave equations for gravitational waves are solved by numerical integration using the single null coordinate. The result implies that the metric perturbation grows when it approaches the Cauchy horizon and diverges there, although the naked singularity is not a strong source of even-parity gravitational radiation. Therefore, the Cauchy horizon in this spacetime should be unstable with respect to linear even-parity perturbations.Comment: 16 pages, 5 figures, errors and typos corrected, final versio

    STS Observations of Landau Levels at Graphite Surfaces

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    Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements were made on surfaces of two different kinds of graphite samples, Kish graphite and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG), at very low temperatures and in high magnetic fields. We observed a series of peaks in the tunnel spectra, which grow with increasing field, both at positive and negative bias voltages. These are associated with Landau quantization of the quasi two-dimensional electrons and holes in graphite in magnetic fields perpendicular to the basal plane. Almost field independent Landau levels fixed near the Fermi energy, which are characteristic of the graphite crystalline structure, were directly observed for the first time. Calculations of the local density of states at the graphite surfaces allow us to identify Kish graphite as bulk graphite and HOPG as graphite with finite thickness effectively

    Physical Processes in Naked Singularity Formation

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    Gravitational collapse is one of the most fruitful subjects in gravitational physics. It is well known that singularity formation is inevitable in complete gravitational collapse. It was conjectured that such a singularity should be hidden by horizons if it is formed from generic initial data with physically reasonable matter fields. Many possible counterexamples to this conjecture have been proposed over the past three decades, although none of them has proved to be sufficiently generic. In these examples, there appears a singularity that is not hidden by horizons. This singularity is called a `naked singularity.' The appearance of a naked singularity represents the formation of an observable high-curvature, strong-gravity region. In this paper we review examples of naked singularity formation and recent progress in research of observable physical processes - gravitational radiation and quantum particle creation - from a forming naked singularity.Comment: 76 pages, 25 figure file

    Large-scale analysis of human alternative protein isoforms: pattern classification and correlation with subcellular localization signals

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    We investigated human alternative protein isoforms of >2600 genes based on full-length cDNA clones and SwissProt. We classified the isoforms and examined their co-occurrence for each gene. Further, we investigated potential relationships between these changes and differential subcellular localization. The two most abundant patterns were the one with different C-terminal regions and the one with an internal insertion, which together account for 43% of the total. Although changes of the N-terminal region are less common than those of the C-terminal region, extension of the C-terminal region is much less common than that of the N-terminal region, probably because of the difficulty of removing stop codons in one isoform. We also found that there are some frequently used combinations of co-occurrence in alternative isoforms. We interpret this as evidence that there is some structural relationship which produces a repertoire of isoformal patterns. Finally, many terminal changes are predicted to cause differential subcellular localization, especially in targeting either peroxisomes or mitochondria. Our study sheds new light on the enrichment of the human proteome through alternative splicing and related events. Our database of alternative protein isoforms is available through the internet

    Two Boosted Black Holes in Asymptotically de Sitter Space-Time - Relation between Mass and Apparent Horizon Formation -

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    We study the apparent horizon for two boosted black holes in the asymptotically de Sitter space-time by solving the initial data on a space with punctures. We show that the apparent horizon enclosing both black holes is not formed if the conserved mass of the system (Abbott-Deser mass) is larger than a critical mass. The black hole with too large AD mass therefore cannot be formed in the asymptotically de Sitter space-time even though each black hole has any inward momentum. We also discuss the dynamical meaning of AD mass by examining the electric part of the Weyl tensor (the tidal force) for various initial data.Comment: 15 pages, accepted for publication in PR
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