3 research outputs found

    Decoding the genetic relationship between Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: potential risk variants and future direction for North Africa

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    IntroductionAlzheimer’s disease (AD) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are both age-associated diseases. Identification of shared genes could help develop early diagnosis and preventive strategies. Although genetic background plays a crucial role in these diseases, we noticed an underrepresentation tendency of North African populations in omics studies.Materials and methodsFirst, we conducted a comprehensive review of genes and pathways shared between T2D and AD through PubMed. Then, the function of the identified genes and variants was investigated using annotation tools including PolyPhen2, RegulomeDB, and miRdSNP. Pathways enrichment analyses were performed with g:Profiler and EnrichmentMap. Next, we analyzed variant distributions in 16 worldwide populations using PLINK2, R, and STRUCTURE software. Finally, we performed an inter-ethnic comparison based on the minor allele frequency of T2D-AD common variants.ResultsA total of 59 eligible papers were included in our study. We found 231 variants and 363 genes shared between T2D and AD. Variant annotation revealed six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with a high pathogenic score, three SNPs with regulatory effects on the brain, and six SNPs with potential effects on miRNA-binding sites. The miRNAs affected were implicated in T2D, insulin signaling pathways, and AD. Moreover, replicated genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to plasma protein binding, positive regulation of amyloid fibril deposition, microglia activation, and cholesterol metabolism. Multidimensional screening performed based on the 363 shared genes showed that main North African populations are clustered together and are divergent from other worldwide populations. Interestingly, our results showed that 49 SNP associated with T2D and AD were present in North African populations. Among them, 11 variants located in DNM3, CFH, PPARG, ROHA, AGER, CLU, BDNF1, CST9, and PLCG1 genes display significant differences in risk allele frequencies between North African and other populations.ConclusionOur study highlighted the complexity and the unique molecular architecture of North African populations regarding T2D-AD shared genes. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of T2D-AD shared genes and ethnicity-specific investigation studies for a better understanding of the link behind these diseases and to develop accurate diagnoses using personalized genetic biomarkers

    The Role of Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Importance of Macro and Micronutrients in Glucose Homeostasis

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    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. Genetics and lifestyle, especially diet, are contributing factors. Analyses of macro- and micronutrient intake across global populations may help to explain their impact on glucose homeostasis and disease development. To this end, 420 Tunisians were enrolled in a prospective cross-sectional study of daily food consumption. Various data were collected and blood samples were drawn for biochemical assay. A 24-h recall questionnaire was obtained from participants to evaluate dietary intake. Statistical analyses were conducted using Nutrilog and R software. Biochemical analyses stratified the studied population (n = 371) into three groups: diabetics (n = 106), prediabetics (n = 192) and controls (n = 73); 49 subjects were excluded. Our results showed that Tunisians had hypercaloric diets high in carbohydrates and fat with variability in the levels of some vitamins and minerals, including riboflavin and niacin, that were statistically different among groups. The lower intake of vitamin D was associated with a greater risk of T2D. Higher vitamin A and sodium intake were associated with poor glucose homeostasis, although protein intake may improve it. In perspective, nutrigenomic studies can provide insight into problematic diets and poor eating habits and offer opportunities to analyze the effects of behavioral changes that can mitigate T2D development and progression

    Prevalence and risk factors of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in North East Tunisia calling for efficient and effective actions

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    Abstract Diabetes and hypertension are a serious public health problem worldwide. In the last decades, prevalence of these two metabolic diseases has dramatically increased in the Middle East and North Africa region, especially in Tunisia. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and High Blood Pressure (HBP) in Zaghouan, a North-East region of Tunisia. To this end, an exploratory study with stratified random sampling of 420 participants has been carried out. Various data were collected. Blood samples and urine were drawn for biochemical assay. Then, all data were analyzed using the statistical R software. Results showed an alarming situation with an inter-regional difference in prevalence of obesity (50.0%, CI 95.0%), HBP (39.0%, CI 95.0%) and T2D (32.0%, CI 95.0%). This study allowed the discovery of 24, 17 and 2 new cases of T2D, HBP and T2D&HBP respectively. The association of some socio-economic factors and biochemical parameters with these chronic diseases has been highlighted. To conclude, the health situation in the governorate of Zaghouan requires urgent interventions to better manage the growing epidemic of non-communicable diseases (NCD) in the region. This study demonstrated the importance of engaging health policy makers in road mapping and implementing national NCD prevention programs