220 research outputs found

    Defective DNA repair mechanisms in prostate cancer: impact of olaparib

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    The field of prostate oncology has continued to change dramatically. It has truly become a field that is intensely linked to molecular genetic alterations, especially DNA-repair defects. Germline breast cancer 1 gene (BRCA1) and breast cancer 2 gene (BRCA2) mutations are implicated in the highest risk of prostate cancer (PC) predisposition and aggressiveness. Poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase (PARP) proteins play a key role in DNA repair mechanisms and represent a valid target for new therapies. Olaparib is an oral PARP inhibitor that blocks DNA repair pathway and coupled with BRCA mutated-disease results in tumor cell death. In phase II clinical trials, including patients with advanced castration-resistant PC, olaparib seems to be efficacious and well tolerated. Waiting for randomized phase III trials, olaparib should be considered as a promising treatment option for PC

    Radiation therapy and serum salivary amylase in head and neck cancer

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    Radiation therapy (RT) is a valid treatment option for head and neck cancer (HNC). The risk of RT-induced toxicities is significant, especially due to extended treatment fields. The raise in amylase activity is strictly dependent on the volume of salivary glands included in the irradiated target volume and it is firmly related to the dose. The aim of this review is to report the effects on salivary amylase activity after radiation exposure of salivary glands, in patients with HNC

    The age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index as a predictor of survival in surgically treated vulvar cancer patients

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    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity index (ACCI) in predicting disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS) among surgically treated patients with vulvar carcinoma. The secondary aim is to evaluate its impact as a predictor of the pattern of recurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated data of patients that underwent surgical treatment for vulvar cancer from 1998 to 2016. ACCI at the time of primary surgery was evaluated and patients were classified as low (ACCI 0-1), intermediate (ACCI 2-3), and high risk (>3). DFS, OS and CSS were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meir and the Cox proportional hazard models. Logistic regression model was used to assess predictors of distant and local recurrence. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients were included in the study. Twelve were classified as low, 36 as intermediate, and 30 as high risk according to their ACCI. Using multivariate analysis, ACCI class was an independent predictor of worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR]=3.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.54-5.99; p<0.001), OS (HR=5.25; 95% CI=1.63-16.89; p=0.005) and CSS (HR=3.79; 95% CI=1.13-12.78; p=0.03). Positive nodal status (odds ratio=8.46; 95% CI=2.13-33.58; p=0.002) was the only parameter correlated with distant recurrence at logistic regression. CONCLUSION: ACCI could be a useful tool in predicting prognosis in surgically treated vulvar cancer patients. Prospective multicenter trials assessing the role of ACCI in vulvar cancer patients are warranted

    Weekly versus three weeks chemotherapy for advanced ovarian cancer. A meta-analysis

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    Aim: Three weeks paclitaxel and carboplatin has been considered the standard of care for primary treatment of ovarian cancer (OC). Whether weekly therapy will further improve the clinical outcomes or not is still unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the two regimens. Method: Articles were selected with a systematic approach, using PubMed databases. Trials concerning comparison between carboplatin plus weekly paclitaxel (dose-dense regimen) and carboplatin plus paclitaxel every 3 weeks were considered. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and severe acute toxicity. Results: Dose-dense regimen was associated with significant improvement of PFS compared with standard schedule, with HR of 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.88, p = 0.001). There was no difference in OS between treatment regimens (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.77-1.16, p=0.06), as well as in term of severe acute toxicity. Conclusion: Dose-dense regimen is superior to standard schedule in terms of PFS. Further studies are necessary to firmly confirm this evidence in advanced OC treatment

    Efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab in recurrent ovarian disease: an update meta-analysis on phase III trials

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    Background: To analyze the efficacy and toxicity of bevacizumab on survival outcomes in recurrent ovarian cancer. Results: Bevacizumab was associated with significant improvement of PFS and OS compared with standard treatment with HRs of 0.53 (95% CI 0.44 - 0.63; p < 0.00001) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.99; p = 0.03), respectively. Bevacizumab increased the incidence of G3/G4 hypertension (RR 19.01, 95% CI 7.77 - 46.55; p < 0.00001), proteinuria (RR 17.31, 95% CI 5.42 - 55.25; p < 0.00001), arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) (RR 4.99, 95% CI 1.29 - 19.27; p = 0.02) and bleeding (RR 3.14, 95% CI 1.35 - 7.32; p = 0.008). Materials and Methods: Three randomized phase III trials representing 1502 patients were identified. Pooled hazard ratio (HR), odd ratio (OR), risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed or random effects model. Conclusions: Adding bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy improved ORR, PFS and OS, and it had a higher, but manageable, incidence of toxicities graded 3 to 4

    Fertility preservation in gynaecologic cancers

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    Due to substantial improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecologic cancers, a better understanding of patient care needs to be revised. We reviewed the literature related to fertility preservation strategies in gynaecological cancer and discussed current general management approaches. New technical modalities and patients’ own desire for motherhood should be integral and paramount in the clinical evaluation to significantly contribute to preserving fertility in those women diagnosed with gynaecologic cancers during the reproductive years

    Comparison of anogenital distance and correlation with vulvo-vaginal atrophy: a pilot study on premenopausal and postmenopausal women

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    OBJECTIVES: Anogenital distance (AGD) represents the space between labia posterior commissure and anus. This was pilot study to investigate how menopause and so lack of oestrogens affects AGD. METHODS: A total of 109 patients were enrolled. AGD was measured in lithotomy position using sterile paper ruler. Anogenital index (AGI) was used to control 2 variables of height and weight (body mass index, kg/m2). Vaginal health index (VHI) was used to evaluate vaginal wellness. Female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire was administered to all women to evaluate the impact of menopause on their sexual function. RESULTS: AGD (30.87 ± 2.98 vs. 17.57 ± 2.18; P = 0.0001) and AGI (1.40 ± 0.21 vs. 0.70 ± 0.15; P = 0.0001) were both significantly lower in the postmenopausal group. Postmenopausal women were affected by vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) significantly. Thus, VHI scores were dramatically worse in postmenopausal group (23.95 ± 1.28 vs. 10.75 ± 3.41; P = 0.0001) as well as FSFI results (32.68 ± 2.25 vs. 19.78 ± 5.46; P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that AGD in post-menopausal women was significantly shorter than AGD in premenopausal women, correlating with an increase of VVA and sexual impairment. Changes of AGD and AGI demonstrated to predict hormonal changes that may occur after menopause

    PARP inhibition: a promising therapeutic target in ovarian cancer

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    Ovarian cancer is burdened by the highest mortality rate among gynecological cancers. Gold standard is represented by the association of platinum-taxane -based chemotherapy and radical surgery. Despite several adjustments occurred in cytotoxic drug in last decades, most patients continue to relapse, and no significant enhancement has been reached in the overall survival. The development of drug resistance and the recurrence of disease have prompted the investigations of other targets that can be used in the treatment of ovarian cancers. Among such targets, polyadenosine diphosphate-ribose polymerase (PARP) represents a novel way to target specific patways involved in tumor growth. PARP accelerates the reaction of the polyADP-ribosylation of proteins implicated in DNA repair. PARP inhibitors have shown activity in cancers with BRCA mutations, with other deficient DNA repair genes or signaling pathways that modulate DNA repair, or in association with DNA damaging agents not involved in DNA repair dysfunction. A number of inhibitors for PARP has been developed, and such drugs are under investigation in clinical trials to identify their impact in the treatment of ovarian cancers. This review aims to summarize the recent researches and clinical progress on PARP inhibitors as novel target agents in ovarian cancer
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