19,086 research outputs found

### The Reionization History and Early Metal Enrichment inferred from the Gamma-Ray Burst Rate

Based on the gamma-ray burst (GRB) event rate at redshifts of $4 \leq z \leq
12$, which is assessed by the spectral peak energy-to-luminosity relation
recently found by Yonetoku et al., we observationally derive the star formation
rate (SFR) for Pop III stars in a high redshift universe. As a result, we find
that Pop III stars could form continuously at $4 \leq z \leq 12$. Using the
derived Pop III SFR, we attempt to estimate the ultraviolet (UV) photon
emission rate at $7 \leq z \leq 12$ in which redshift range no observational
information has been hitherto obtained on ionizing radiation intensity. We find
that the UV emissivity at $7 \leq z \leq 12$ can make a noticeable contribution
to the early reionization. The maximal emissivity is higher than the level
required to keep ionizing the intergalactic matter at $7 \leq z \leq 12$.
However, if the escape fraction of ionizing photons from Pop III objects is
smaller than 10%, then the IGM can be neutralized at some redshift, which may
lead to the double reionization. As for the enrichment, the ejection of all
metals synthesized in Pop III objects is marginally consistent with the IGM
metallicity, although the confinement of metals in Pop III objects can reduce
the enrichment significantly.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures, ApJL accepte

### Yang-Mills theory constructed from Cho--Faddeev--Niemi decomposition

We give a new way of looking at the Cho--Faddeev--Niemi (CFN) decomposition
of the Yang-Mills theory to answer how the enlarged local gauge symmetry
respected by the CFN variables is restricted to obtain another Yang-Mills
theory with the same local and global gauge symmetries as the original
Yang-Mills theory. This may shed new light on the fundamental issue of the
discrepancy between two theories for independent degrees of freedom and the
role of the Maximal Abelian gauge in Yang-Mills theory. As a byproduct, this
consideration gives new insight into the meaning of the gauge invariance and
the observables, e.g., a gauge-invariant mass term and vacuum condensates of
mass dimension two. We point out the implications for the Skyrme--Faddeev
model.Comment: 17pages, 1 figure; English improved; a version appeared in Prog.
Theor. Phy

### The sidereal anisotropy of cosmic rays around 3 x 10 (15) eV observed at a middle north latitude

The sidereal time variation of cosmic rays (median primary energy : 3 10 to the 15th power eV) is investigated with air shower observations at Akeno, Japan (900 m a.s.l.) which started in September 1981. Air showers are detected by a coincidence requirement on several muon detectors. The result obtained for three years is suggestive of a big semi-diurnal variation (0.37 % in amplitude). On the other hand, the diurnal variation is rather small than the semi-diurnal one. The feature of the sidereal anisotropy supposed from the present result looks quite different from that below 10 to the 14th power eV

### Theory of "Jitter" Radiation from Small-Scale Random Magnetic Fields and Prompt Emission from Gamma-Ray Burst Shocks

Abridged.-- We demonstrate that the radiation emitted by ultrarelativistic
electrons in highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields is different from
synchrotron radiation if the electron's transverse deflections in these fields
are much smaller than the beaming angle. A quantitative analytical theory of
this radiation, which we refer to as jitter radiation, is developed. It is
shown that the emergent spectrum is determined by statistical properties of the
magnetic field. As an example,we then use the model of a magnetic field in
internal shocks of GRBs. The spectral power distribution of radiation produced
by the power-law electrons is well described by a sharply broken power-law with
indices 1 and -(p-1)/2 and the jitter break frequency is independent of the
field strength but depends on the electron density in the ejecta. Since
large-scale fields may also be present in the ejecta, we construct a
two-component, jitter+synchrotron spectral model of the prompt $\gamma$-ray
emission. Quite surprisingly, this model seems to be readily capable of
explaining several properties of time-resolved spectra of some GRBs, such as
(i) the violation of the constraint on the low-energy spectral index called the
synchrotron ``line of death'', (ii) the sharp spectral break at the peak
frequency, inconsistent with the broad synchrotron bump, (iii) the evidence for
two spectral sub-components, and (iv) possible existence of emission features
called ``GRB lines''. We believe these facts strongly support both the
existence of small-scale magnetic fields and the proposed radiation mechanism
from GRB shocks. As an example, we use the composite model to analyze GRB
910503 which has two spectral peaks.Comment: 12 pages (emulateapj), 11 figures (EPS), ApJ, accepted. For related
work, see http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~mmedved

### Observables and Correlation Functions in OSp Invariant String Field Theory

We define BRST invariant observables in the OSp invariant closed string field
theory for bosonic strings. We evaluate correlation functions of these
observables and show that the S-matrix elements derived from them coincide with
those of the light-cone gauge string field theory.Comment: 23 page

### Existence of an upper limit on the density of excitons in carbon nanotubes by diffusion-limited exciton-exciton annihilation: Experiment and theory

Through an investigation of photoemission properties of highly-photoexcited
single-walled carbon nanotubes, we demonstrate that there is an upper limit on
the achievable excitonic density. As the intensity of optical excitation
increases, all photoluminescence emission peaks arising from different
chirality single-walled carbon nanotubes showed clear saturation in intensity.
Each peak exhibited a saturation value that was independent of the excitation
wavelength, indicating that there is an upper limit on the excitonic density
for each nanotube species. We propose that this saturation behavior is a result
of efficient exciton-exciton annihilation through which excitons decay
non-radiatively. In order to explain the experimental results and obtain
excitonic densities in the saturation regime, we have developed a model, taking
into account the generation, diffusion-limited exciton-exciton annihilation,
and spontaneous decays of one-dimensional excitons. Using the model, we were
able to reproduce the experimentally obtained saturation curves under certain
approximations, from which the excitonic densities were estimated. The validity
of the model was confirmed through comparison with Monte Carlo simulations.
Finally, we show that the conventional rate equation for exciton-exciton
annihilation without taking into account exciton diffusion fails to fit the
experimentally observed saturation behavior, especially at high excitonic
densities.Comment: 5 figures, 1 tabl

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