415 research outputs found

    Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions in ALICE

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    Fluctuations of various observables in heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies have been extensively studied as they provide important signals regarding the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Because of the large number of produced particles in each event, a detailed study of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations has been proposed as one of the signatures of the phase transition. In addition, the understanding of multiplicity fluctuations is essential for other event-by-event measurements. In the present work, we have calculated the scaled variance (ŌČch=ŌÉ2/őľ\omega_{\rm ch}=\sigma^{\rm 2} / \mu) of the charged-particle multiplicity distributions as a function of centrality in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. Here, őľ\mu and ŌÉ\sigma denote the mean and the width of the multiplicity distributions, respectively. The trend of scaled variances as a function of centrality is presented and discussed. Volume fluctuations play an important role while measuring the multiplicity fluctuations, which are also discussed. The results are expected to provide vital input to theoretical model calculations.Comment: Proceedings of "XI Workshop on Particle Correlations and Femtoscopy", 3-7 November 2015. 5 pages, 2 figure

    Increased Antimicrobial and Multidrug Resistance Downstream of Wastewater Treatment Plants in an Urban Watershed

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    Development and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) through propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in various environments is a global emerging public health concern. The role of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as hot spots for the dissemination of AMR and MDR has been widely pointed out by the scientific community. In this study, we collected surface water samples from sites upstream and downstream of two WWTP discharge points in an urban watershed in the Bryan-College Station (BCS), Texas area, over a period of nine months. E. coli isolates were tested for resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cephalothin, cefoperazone, gentamycin, and imipenem using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistant heterotrophic bacteria were cultured on R2A media amended with ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and sulfamethoxazole for analyzing heterotrophic bacteria capable of growth on antibiotic-containing media. In addition, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method was used to measure eight ARG ‚Äď tetA, tetW, aacA, ampC, mecA, ermA, blaTEM, and intI1 in the surface water collected at each time point. Significant associations (p \u3c 0.05) were observed between the locations of sampling sites relative to WWTP discharge points and the rate of E. coli isolate resistance to tetracycline, ampicillin, cefoperazone, ciprofloxacin, and sulfamethoxazole together with an increased rate of isolate MDR. The abundance of antibiotic-resistant heterotrophs was significantly greater (p \u3c 0.05) downstream of WWTPs compared to upstream locations for all tested antibiotics. Consistent with the results from the culture-based methods, the concentrations of all ARG were substantially higher in the downstream sites compared to the upstream sites, particularly in the site immediately downstream of the WWTP effluent discharges (except mecA). In addition, the Class I integron (intI1) genes were detected in high amounts at all sites and all sampling points, and were about ‚ąľ20 times higher in the downstream sites (2.5 √ó 107 copies/100 mL surface water) compared to the upstream sites (1.2 √ó 106 copies/100 mL surface water). Results suggest that the treated WWTP effluent discharges into surface waters can potentially contribute to the occurrence and prevalence of AMR in urban watersheds. In addition to detecting increased ARG in the downstream sites by qPCR, findings from this study also report an increase in viable AMR (HPC) and MDR (E. coli) in these sites. This data will benefit establishment of improved environmental regulations and practices to help manage AMR/MDR and ARG discharges into the environment, and to develop mitigation strategies and effective treatment of wastewater

    Identification, enumeration and diversity of nitrifying planktonic archaea and bacteria in trophic end members of the Laurentian Great Lakes

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    Oligotrophic Lake Superior and mesotrophic Lake Erie are trophic end members of the hydrologically connected Laurentian Great Lakes system, and as such exhibit different profiles of dissolved nitrogen species. Nitrification in Lake Superior has led to increasing nitrate concentrations over the past century, as opposed to Erie, where nitrate inventories have declined due to denitrification. In this study, we examined the abundance and diversity of nitrifying microbes involved in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite, and nitrite to nitrate. By in situ hybridization methods, we enumerated the major planktonic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) during a July 2011 cruise from Lake Superior to Lake Erie. In Lake Superior, AOA dominated compared to AOB, typically exceeding 5 √ó 103 mL-1, whereas in Erie, AOB were more abundant than AOA. These data parallel prior work on Lake Superior and Lake Erie sediments, in which AOA are far more abundant in Superior, but AOB dominate in Erie. The lakes were sampled during stratification, and AOA and AOB were largely restricted to the hypolimnion, consistent with the observation that ammonia oxidizers are photoinhibited in surface waters. In Lakes Superior and Erie, we also detected nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in a pattern paralleling AOA/AOB abundance. Phylogenetic analysis of archaeal 16S rRNA revealed that the planktonic archaea of Lake Superior are members of the ammonia oxidizing Group I.1a Thaumarchaeota most closely related to Nitrosoarchaeum limnia. These AOA are distinct from the Group I.1a AOA in Lake Superior sediments. The major AOB of Lake Erie form a subcluster within the genus Nitrosospira

    \u3ci\u3eEscherichia coli\u3c/i\u3e Antimicrobial Resistance Variability In Water Runoff and Soil From a Remnant Native Prairie, and Improved Pasture, and a Cultivated Agricultural Watershed

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    Although many previous studies have examined patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR) from domestic animals and farm environments, comparatively little is known about the environmental sources and natural reservoirs of AMR and MDR. In this study, we collected stormwater runoff and soil samples from three watersheds in Texas. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were enumerated, isolated, and analyzed for resistance patterns. E. coli from all sites, irrespective of land use, displayed the presence of AMR/MDR. Higher levels of AMR/MDR were observed in water compared to soil. More isolates were resistant to cephalothin than other antibiotics. For water isolates, 94% was resistant to cephalothin, 27% to tetracycline, and 15% to ampicillin. Across all sites, a large percentage of water isolates demonstrated MDR with 34% resistant to ‚Č•2 antibiotics and 11% to ‚Č•3 antibiotics. All AMR soil isolates were resistant to cephalothin (87% of the total soil isolates), but only 8.9% were MDR. High cephalothin resistance observed in both soil and water suggests the presence of native, cephalothin-resistant E. coli. Higher MDR observed within water compared to the soil populations suggests that resistance sources other than soil, such as more recent fecal depositions as opposed to residual AMR in soil, could have contributed to higher antibiotic-resistant E. coli in runoff

    Elevated Incidences of Antimicrobial Resistance and Multidrug Resistance In the Maumee River (Ohio, USA), a Major Tributary of Lake Erie

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    Maumee River, the major tributary in the western basin of Lake Erie, serves as one of major sources of freshwater in the area, supplying potable, recreational, and industrial water. In this study we collected water samples from four sites in the Maumee River Bay between 2016‚Äď2017 and E. coli was isolated, enumerated, and analyzed for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and multidrug resistance (MDR). Strikingly, 95% of the total isolates were found to be resistant to at least one antibiotic. A very high resistance to the drugs cephalothin (95.3%), ampicillin (38.3%), tetracycline (8.8%), gentamicin (8.2%), ciprofloxacin (4.2%), cefoperazone (4%), and sulfamethoxazole (1.5%) was observed within isolates from all four sampling sites. Percentages of AMR and MDR was consistently very high in the summer and fall months, whereas it was observed to be lowest in the winter. A remarkably high number of the isolates were detected to be MDR‚ÄĒ95% resistant to ‚Č•1 antibiotic, 43% resistant to ‚Č•2 antibiotics, 15% resistant to ‚Č•3 antibiotics, 4.9% resistant to ‚Č•4 antibiotic and 1.2% resistant to ‚Č•5 antibiotics. This data will serve in better understanding the environmental occurrence and dissemination of AMR/MDR in the area and assist in improving and establishing control measures

    Rates and controls of nitrification in a large oligotrophic lake

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    Recent discoveries have altered prevailing paradigms concerning the conditions under which nitrification takes place and the organisms responsible for nitrification in aquatic ecosystems. In Lake Superior, nitrate (NO-3) concentrations have increased fivefold in the past century. Although previous evidence indicated that most NO-3 is generated by nitrification within the lake, important questions remain concerning the magnitude and controls of nitrification, and which microbial groups are primarily responsible for this process. We measured water-column nitrification rates in the western basin of Lake Superior during five research cruises from November 2009 to March 2011. Using in situ bottle incubations at 10 depths, we quantified nitrification rates using both the oxidation of 15N-labeled ammonium (NH+4) and the uptake of 14C associated with nitrification. Average rates of NH+4 oxidation ranged from 18-34 nmol N L-1 d-1 across the five cruises, similar to values reported for the coastal ocean, and two orders of magnitude lower than values reported from other lakes. Low nitrification rates observed in the epilimnion corresponded to the absence of ammonium-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The measured rates of nitrification are \u3e 50-fold greater than the long-term NO-3 rise in the lake, indicating that N is actively cycling and that long-term change in this ecosystem is mediated by internal dynamics. © 2013, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc

    Azimuthal anisotropy of charged jet production in root s(NN)=2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions

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    We present measurements of the azimuthal dependence of charged jet production in central and semi-central root s(NN) = 2.76 TeV Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the second harmonic event plane, quantified as nu(ch)(2) (jet). Jet finding is performed employing the anti-k(T) algorithm with a resolution parameter R = 0.2 using charged tracks from the ALICE tracking system. The contribution of the azimuthal anisotropy of the underlying event is taken into account event-by-event. The remaining (statistical) region-to-region fluctuations are removed on an ensemble basis by unfolding the jet spectra for different event plane orientations independently. Significant non-zero nu(ch)(2) (jet) is observed in semi-central collisions (30-50% centrality) for 20 <p(T)(ch) (jet) <90 GeV/c. The azimuthal dependence of the charged jet production is similar to the dependence observed for jets comprising both charged and neutral fragments, and compatible with measurements of the nu(2) of single charged particles at high p(T). Good agreement between the data and predictions from JEWEL, an event generator simulating parton shower evolution in the presence of a dense QCD medium, is found in semi-central collisions. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).Peer reviewe

    Long-range angular correlations on the near and away side in p&#8211;Pb collisions at

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    Forward-central two-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=5.02 TeV

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    Two-particle angular correlations between trigger particles in the forward pseudorapidity range (2.5 2GeV/c. (C) 2015 CERN for the benefit of the ALICE Collaboration. Published by Elsevier B. V.Peer reviewe

    Event-shape engineering for inclusive spectra and elliptic flow in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S=2.76 TeV