807 research outputs found

    Pagoda Desecration and Myanmar Archaeology, 1853–86

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    Examination of the British occupation of the Shwedagon pagoda in 1853 CE in the context of the formation of the Epigraphic Office from which today's Department of Archaeology, Ministry of Culture has emerged

    Finger-marked designs on ancient bricks in Myanmar

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    Bricks with finger-marked designs are found at many of the ancient cities of Myanmar. A comparative study of the bricks, the designs, and the sites where they are found has been conducted over the last twenty-five years. Aerial photographs have long been used in Myanmar, but there has been no previous classification of the ancient settlements, numbering over one hundred, whose walls and/ or moats make them visible from the air

    Ta Mok Shwe-gu-gyi Temple: Local Art in Upper Myanmar 11-17th century AD

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    The article explores the relationship of a local tradition of nine Shwe-gu or “golden caves” and the 11 khayaing of Kyaukse, the rice fields that supplied Bagan. Drawing on survey and ongoing work at the Ta Mok khayaing Shwe-gu-gyi, we profile a local specificity essential to and yet far from the courts of 11th–17th century Bagan, Pinya and Inwa. In its multiple encasements of images and architecture, the Ta Mok Shwe-gu-gyi records a transition from the visual complexity of Bagan period gu to the more iconic structures of the Pinya and Inwa eras

    Urban Forms and Civic Space in Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century Bangkok and Rangoon

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    Buddhist spaces in Bangkok and Rangoon both had long common traditions prior to nineteenth and early twentieth-century colonial incursions. Top–down central city planning with European designs transformed both cities. While Siamese kings personally initiated civic change that began to widen economic and social interaction of different classes, British models segregated European, Burmese, Indian, and Chinese populations to exacerbate social differences. In addition, the Siamese rulers maintained and enhanced civic spaces of religious compounds while the British occupied the Shwedagon pagoda for military purposes and created spacious gardens for their own use. The article underlines the disparity in the provision of urban forms in central city planning between the royal vision of nation-building developed by King Chulalongkorn and his successor King Vajiravudh and the new capital of Rangoon laid out by colonial engineers where the traditional ritual spaces became the staging ground for nationalist movements. In both cities, urban forms and civic spaces were essential in legitimizing political authority. The article demonstrates the manner in which spatial and visual systems colored the production of civic space to initiate social integration in Bangkok and preamble disintegration in colonial Rangoon

    Academic Libraries on Social Media: Finding the Students and the Information They Want

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    Librarians from Purdue University wanted to determine which social media platforms students use, which platforms they would like the library to use, and what content they would like to see from the library on each of these platforms. We conducted a survey at four of the nine campus libraries to determine student social media habits and preferences. Results show that students currently use Facebook, YouTube, and Snapchat more than other social media types; however, students responded that they would like to see the library on Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter. Students wanted nearly all types of content from the libraries on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, but they did not want to receive business news or content related to library resources on Snapchat. YouTube was seen as a resource for library service information. We intend to use this information to develop improved communication channels, a clear libraries social media presence, and a cohesive message from all campus libraries

    The Sacred Geography of Dawei: Buddhism in peninsular Myanmar (Burma)

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    The paper opens by recounting the beginnings of Buddhism in Dawei as preserved in local chronicles and sustained in stupas marking the episodes of the chronicle narrative. The chronicles start with a visit of the Buddha whose arrival triggers a series of events bringing together pre-existing tutelary figures, weiza, a hermit and offspring born of a golden fish, culminating in the establishment of the first Buddhist kingdom circa the eighth to tenth century CE. The enshrinement of sacred hairs gifted by the Buddha also includes patronage by a king of the ‘Suvannbhumi’ lineage. Associated with the monks Sona and Uttara from Sri Lanka sent by King Asoka’s son Mahinda, ‘Suvannbhumi’ literally can refer to the archaeology of Thaton, a walled site in the present day Mon State, or, as is the case here, more widely to the missionary tradition associated with Asoka (Sao Saimong Mengrai 1976). The third story in the establishment of the Buddhist king at Thagara is the longest of the chronicle, the tale of a royal hunter who failed to capture a golden peacock for the queen. The hunter became a hermit living by a pond with a golden fish and as he urinated in the pond, two children were born from the fish. The boy becomes the first Buddhist king of Thagara, 11 km north of Dawei, where artefacts from survey and excavation confirm the chronology of the chronicle, with the closest archaeological parallels found not at the ancient sites of the Mon State but to the first millennium CE Buddhist ‘Pyu’ heritage of Upper Myanmar which is notably absent in the chronicle compilation

    The Erotic and the Vulgar: Visual Culture and Organized Labor's Critique of U.S. Hegemony in Occupied Japan

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    This essay engages the colonial legacy of postwar Japan by arguing that the political cartoons produced as part of the postwar Japanese labor movement’s critique of U.S. cultural hegemony illustrate how gendered discourses underpinned, and sometimes undermined, the ideologies formally represented by visual artists and the organizations that funded them. A significant component of organized labor’s propaganda rested on a corpus of visual media that depicted women as icons of Japanese national culture. Japan’s most militant labor unions were propagating anti-imperialist discourses that invoked an engendered/endangered nation that accentuated the importance of union roles for men by subordinating, then eliminating, union roles for women

    Pan-Cancer Analysis of lncRNA Regulation Supports Their Targeting of Cancer Genes in Each Tumor Context

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    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are commonly dys-regulated in tumors, but only a handful are known toplay pathophysiological roles in cancer. We inferredlncRNAs that dysregulate cancer pathways, onco-genes, and tumor suppressors (cancer genes) bymodeling their effects on the activity of transcriptionfactors, RNA-binding proteins, and microRNAs in5,185 TCGA tumors and 1,019 ENCODE assays.Our predictions included hundreds of candidateonco- and tumor-suppressor lncRNAs (cancerlncRNAs) whose somatic alterations account for thedysregulation of dozens of cancer genes and path-ways in each of 14 tumor contexts. To demonstrateproof of concept, we showed that perturbations tar-geting OIP5-AS1 (an inferred tumor suppressor) andTUG1 and WT1-AS (inferred onco-lncRNAs) dysre-gulated cancer genes and altered proliferation ofbreast and gynecologic cancer cells. Our analysis in-dicates that, although most lncRNAs are dysregu-lated in a tumor-specific manner, some, includingOIP5-AS1, TUG1, NEAT1, MEG3, and TSIX, synergis-tically dysregulate cancer pathways in multiple tumorcontexts

    Pan-cancer Alterations of the MYC Oncogene and Its Proximal Network across the Cancer Genome Atlas

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    Although theMYConcogene has been implicated incancer, a systematic assessment of alterations ofMYC, related transcription factors, and co-regulatoryproteins, forming the proximal MYC network (PMN),across human cancers is lacking. Using computa-tional approaches, we define genomic and proteo-mic features associated with MYC and the PMNacross the 33 cancers of The Cancer Genome Atlas.Pan-cancer, 28% of all samples had at least one ofthe MYC paralogs amplified. In contrast, the MYCantagonists MGA and MNT were the most frequentlymutated or deleted members, proposing a roleas tumor suppressors.MYCalterations were mutu-ally exclusive withPIK3CA,PTEN,APC,orBRAFalterations, suggesting that MYC is a distinct onco-genic driver. Expression analysis revealed MYC-associated pathways in tumor subtypes, such asimmune response and growth factor signaling; chro-matin, translation, and DNA replication/repair wereconserved pan-cancer. This analysis reveals insightsinto MYC biology and is a reference for biomarkersand therapeutics for cancers with alterations ofMYC or the PMN