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    Paraoxonase activity in metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents

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    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a collection of various interrelated risk factors that appear to have an impact as development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVDs). Epidemic of childhood and adolescent’s obesity has increased interest in the metabolic syndrome (MS) due to the potential projection into adulthood. The prevalence of MS in adolescents has been estimated to be 6.7% in young adults and 4.2% in adolescents. We aimed to study the MetS in children and adolescents with respect to metabolic changes. Methods: The international Diabetes Federation criteria were used for the selection of cases. Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Statistical analysis was done using MyStat statistical software. Results: Serum PON1 arylesterase (ARE) and lactonase (LACT) activities were found to be reduced significantly in patients with MetS than in controls. Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between PON1 activities and body mass index. Area under curve (AUC) found to increase from HDL to PON1 ARE to PON1 LACT. Conclusions: From the present study, it is clear that in children and adolescents, reduction in PON1 activities in MetS is mainly due either to abnormalities with synthesis or secretion of HDL cholesterol or oxidative stress as a consequence of excess production of the free radicals. This study also iterates that it is the quality and not the quantity of HDL cholesterol which is important while studying the pathophysiology of MetS


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    ABSTRACT Objective: An important predictor for infant survival is birth weight. Normal fetal growth is related to various intrauterine factors. Low birth weight is thought to have relation with oxidative stress which plays an important role in reducing the birth weight. Among the paraoxonase family PON1 protects LDL and HDL from the lipid peroxidation. This is HDL associated enzyme having antioxidant property. We aimed to evaluate the arylesterase and lactonase activity of PON1 in cord blood in relation to birth weight. We hypothesized that cord blood PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activities will be compromised in neonates having low birth weight. Methods: We included 80 neonates born in our hospital irrespective of mode of delivery as 40 cases and 40 controls. PON1 arylesterase and lactonase activity were measured using spectrophotometer. Results: Serum arylesterase activity decreased significantly in low birth weight babies (p<0.05). Linear regression analysis (R=0.595) indicates significant correlation between arylesterase and birth weight. Serum lactonase activity of PON1 also gets reduced in low birth weight babies. Its linear regression analysis showed (R=0.716) suggesting significant correlation between lactonase and birth weight. Conclusion: Reduced PON1 activity can be explained on the basis of ER stress and atherogenic changes in the placental circulation. Ours is the first study in cord blood paraoxonase activities in relation to birth weight. As the sample in our study is cord blood, it is essentially a noninvasive one. Further studies are needed in this direction to assess the effect of the oxidative stress on fetus through cord blood in its long term prospective. Key Words: Paraoxonase1, arylesterase, lactonase, cord blood, low birth weight Conflict of Interest: There is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript. ÖZE