196 research outputs found

    Optimizing performances of CsI(Tl) crystals with a photodiode readout

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    Tests are described concerning the performances of CsI(Tl) crystals. Particular care was dedicated to the study of the light production and collection of the crystals, that appear to be significantly a⁄ected both by the choice of the wrapping materials and by the details of the binding technique. A functional relation between the light pulse height and the coupling of the crystal#photodiode system was deduced. Finally, the influence of this coupling on the energy resolution of the detector is discussed. ( 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved

    A Procedure to Calibrate a Multi-Modular Telescope

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    A procedure has been developed for the charge, mass and energy calibration of ions produced in nuclear heavy ion reactions. The charge and mass identification are based on a Δ\DeltaE-E technique. A computer code determines the conversion from ADC channels into energy values, atomic number and mass of the detected fragments by comparing with energy loss calculations through a minimization routine. The procedure does not need prior measurements with beams of known energy and charge. An application of this technique to the calibration of the MULTICS apparatus is described.Comment: 9 pages, Tex file, 3 postscript figures available upon request from [email protected]; to appear in Nucl. Inst. Met

    Size and asymmetry of the reaction entrance channel: influence on the probability of neck production

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    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃\simeq4 MeV, E∗≃^*\simeq4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features can be considered as a signature of the dynamical origin of the midvelocity emission. The results of this analysis show that IMF can be produced via different mechanisms simultaneously present within the same collision. Moreover, once fixed the characteristics of the quasi-projectile in the three considered reactions (in size, excitation energy and temperature), one observes that the probability of a partner IMF production via dynamical mechanism has a threshold (not present in the Ni+Al case) and increases with the size of the target nucleus.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication on Nuclear Physics

    Isotopic composition of fragments in multifragmentation of very large nuclear systems: effects of the chemical equilibrium

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    Studies on the isospin of fragments resulting from the disassembly of highly excited large thermal-like nuclear emitting sources, formed in the ^{197}Au + ^{197}Au reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon beam energy, are presented. Two different decay systems (the quasiprojectile formed in midperipheral reactions and the unique source coming from the incomplete fusion of projectile and target in the most central collisions) were considered; these emitting sources have the same initial N/Z ratio and excitation energy (E^* ~= 5--6 MeV/nucleon), but different size. Their charge yields and isotopic content of the fragments show different distributions. It is observed that the neutron content of intermediate mass fragments increases with the size of the source. These evidences are consistent with chemical equilibrium reached in the systems. This fact is confirmed by the analysis with the statistical multifragmentation model.Comment: 9 pages, 4 ps figure

    Contemporary presence of dynamical and statistical production of intermediate mass fragments in midperipheral 58^{58}Ni+58^{58}Ni collisions at 30 MeV/nucleon

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    The 58Ni+58Ni^{58}Ni+^{58}Ni reaction at 30 MeV/nucleon has been experimentally investigated at the Superconducting Cyclotron of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. In midperipheral collisions the production of massive fragments (4≀\leZ≀\le12), consistent with the statistical fragmentation of the projectile-like residue and the dynamical formation of a neck, joining projectile-like and target-like residues, has been observed. The fragments coming from these different processes differ both in charge distribution and isotopic composition. In particular it is shown that these mechanisms leading to fragment production act contemporarily inside the same event.Comment: 9 pages, minor correction

    Statistical Multifragmentation in Central Au+Au Collisions at 35 MeV/u

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    Multifragment disintegrations, measured for central Au + Au collisions at E/A = 35 MeV, are analyzed with the Statistical Multifragmentation Model. Charge distributions, mean fragment energies, and two-fragment correlation functions are well reproduced by the statistical breakup of a large, diluted and thermalized system slightly above the multifragmentation threshold.Comment: Latex file, 8 pages + 4 postscript figures available upon request from [email protected]

    Fragment Isospin as a Probe of Heavy-Ion Collisions

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    Isotope ratios of fragments produced at mid-rapidity in peripheral and central collisions of 114Cd ions with 92Mo and 98Mo target nuclei at E/A = 50 MeV are compared. Neutron-rich isotopes are preferentially produced in central collisions as compared to peripheral collisions. The influence of the size (A), density, N/Z, E*/A, and Eflow/A of the emitting source on the measured isotope ratios was explored by comparison with a statistical model (SMM). The mid-rapidity region associated with peripheral collisions does not appear to be neutron-enriched relative to central collisions.Comment: 12 pages including figure

    Fragment Production in Non-central Collisions of Intermediate Energy Heavy Ions

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    The defining characteristics of fragment emission resulting from the non-central collision of 114Cd ions with 92Mo target nuclei at E/A = 50 MeV are presented. Charge correlations and average relative velocities for mid-velocity fragment emission exhibit significant differences when compared to standard statistical decay. These differences associated with similar velocity dissipation are indicative of the influence of the entrance channel dynamics on the fragment production process

    Multifragment production in Au+Au at 35 MeV/u

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    Multifragment disintegration has been measured with a high efficiency detection system for the reaction Au+AuAu + Au at E/A=35 MeVE/A = 35\ MeV. From the event shape analysis and the comparison with the predictions of a many-body trajectories calculation the data, for central collisions, are compatible with a fast emission from a unique fragment source.Comment: 9 pages, LaTex file, 4 postscript figures available upon request from [email protected]. - to appear in Phys. Lett.

    Isospin influences on particle emission and critical phenomenon in nuclear dissociation

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    Features of particle emission and critical point behavior are investigated as functions of the isospin of disassembling sources and temperature at a moderate freeze-out density for medium-size Xe isotopes in the framework of isospin dependent lattice gas model. Multiplicities of emitted light particles, isotopic and isobaric ratios of light particles show the strong dependence on the isospin of the dissociation source, but double ratios of light isotope pairs and the critical temperature determined by the extreme values of some critical observables are insensitive to the isospin of the systems. Values of the power law parameter of cluster mass distribution, mean multiplicity of intermediate mass fragments (IMFIMF), information entropy (HH) and Campi's second moment (S2S_2) also show a minor dependence on the isospin of Xe isotopes at the critical point. In addition, the slopes of the average multiplicites of the neutrons (NnN_n), protons (NpN_p), charged particles (NCPN_{CP}), and IMFs (NimfN_{imf}), slopes of the largest fragment mass number (AmaxA_{max}), and the excitation energy per nucleon of the disassembling source (E∗/AE^*/A) to temperature are investigated as well as variances of the distributions of NnN_n, NpN_p, NCPN_{CP}, NIMFN_{IMF}, AmaxA_{max} and E∗/AE^*/A. It is found that they can be taken as additional judgements to the critical phenomena.Comment: 9 Pages, 8 figure