272 research outputs found

    mRNA <i>in situ</i> hybridization of <i>OsMTP11</i> in rice leaves.

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    <p><i>Blue</i> or <i>purple</i> precipitates indicate positive <i>OsMTP11</i> mRNA signals. <b>A.</b> Transverse sections of a mature leaf. <b>B.</b> Transverse sections of a young leaf bud. <b>C.</b> Longitudinal sections of a seedling leaf bud. <b>D.</b> Control with the transverse sections of leaf bud.</p

    Bioinformatics analyses of <i>OsMTP11</i> nucleotide and amino acid sequences.

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    <p><b>A.</b><i>OsMTP11</i> gene structure analysis in the Rice Genome Annotation Database (<a href="http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/" target="_blank">http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/</a>). <b>B.</b> Phylogenetic tree of the <i>MTP</i> family from rice and <i>Arabidopsis</i>. The tree was constructed using MEGA 4.0.2 by the neighbor-joining method. <i>Arabidopsis</i> MTP amino acid sequences were obtained from <a href="http://www.tigr.org" target="_blank">www.tigr.org</a>: AtMTP1, At2g46800; AtMTP2, At3g61940; AtMTP3, At3g58810; AtMTP4, At2g29410; AtMTP5, At3g12100; AtMTP6, At2g47830; AtMTP7, At1g51610; AtMTP8, At3g58060; AtMTP9, At1g79520; AtMTP10, At1g16310; AtMTP11, At2g39450; AtMTP12, At2g04620. Rice MTP amino acid sequences were downloaded from <a href="http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/" target="_blank">http://rice.plantbiology.msu.edu/</a>. OsMTP11, Os01g62070; OsMTP1, Os05g03780; OsMTP5, Os02g58580; OsMTP6, Os03g22550; OsMTP7, Os04g23180; OsMTP8, Os02g53490; OsMTP8.1, Os03g12580; OsMTP9, Os01g03914; OsMTP11, Os01g62070; OsMTP11.1, Os05g38670; OsMTP12, Os08g32680. <b>C.</b> Amino acid alignment of OsMTP11, AtMTP11 [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref011" target="_blank">11</a>] and ShMTP1 (AY181256) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref012" target="_blank">12</a>]. Amino acid sequences of four predicted transmembrane (TM) segments are boxed. Amino acid residues with dark shading indicate conserved sequences, and residues with light gray shading indicate those conserved in two protein sequences. <b>D.</b> The predicted transmembrane helices of OsMTP11. The transmembrane domains were estimated using TMHMM2: <a href="http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TMHMM/" target="_blank">www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TMHMM/</a>. The peaks show the predicted transmembrane (TM) regions of proteins. These data indicate that OsMTP11 has four obvious TM regions.</p

    The <i>OsMTP11</i> putative promoter region (-2,250 bp) sequence.

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    <p>The transcription start site is denoted +1, and the putative start codon is underlined. Diagram of the <i>OsMTP11</i> promoter region using PlantCARE (<a href="http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/plantcare/html/" target="_blank">http://bioinformatics.psb.ugent.be/webtools/plantcare/html/</a>) showed the presence of a number of potential cis-acting elements that respond to environmental signals. MRE, metal-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref034" target="_blank">34</a>, <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref035" target="_blank">35</a>]; ABRE, abscisic acid-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref036" target="_blank">36</a>]; I-box, light-response element [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref037" target="_blank">37</a>]; BS1EGCCR, "BS1 (binding site 1)" found in CCR gene promoter, which is a cis-element required for vascular expression of the cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene in <i>E</i>. <i>gunnii</i> [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref038" target="_blank">38</a>]. MREs include MRE1: 5’-TGCRCNC-3’ (R = A or G; N = any residue) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref034" target="_blank">34</a>] and MRE2: 5’-HTHNNGCTGD-3’ (D = A, G, or T; H = A, C, or T; N = any residue) [<a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0174987#pone.0174987.ref035" target="_blank">35</a>].</p

    List of <i>S</i>. <i>cerevisiae</i> mutant strains used in this research.

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    <p>Euroscarf (<a href="http://web.uni-frankfurt.de/fb15/mikro/euroscarf/" target="_blank">http://web.uni-frankfurt.de/fb15/mikro/euroscarf/</a>) is a collection of single-deletion mutants in <i>S</i>. <i>cerevisiae</i> (Frankfurt).</p

    DNA methylation analysis of the <i>OsMTP11</i> promoter region.

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    <p><b>A.</b> Schematic distribution of CpG sites and CpG islands in the <i>OsMTP11</i> promoter region. Blue area indicates CpG islands. The scale bar indicates 100 bp. Red bar indicates the region analyzed by bisulfate sequencing. <b>B.</b> Comparison of percentages of cytosine methylation of three different types (CpG, CpHpG, and CpHpH) in rice seedling roots between control and under heavy metal stress (0.5 mM CdCl<sub>2</sub>, 5 mM ZnSO<sub>4,</sub> 2 mM MnSO<sub>4,</sub> 1 mM NiCl<sub>2</sub>) or salt treatment (300 mM NaCl) for 72 hours.</p

    Cross-links in Carbon Nanotube Assembly Introduced by Using Polyacrylonitrile as Precursor

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    Individual carbon nanotube (CNT) exhibits extraordinary mechanics. However, the properties of the macroscopic CNT-based structure, such as CNT fibers and films, are far lower than that of individual CNT. One of the main reasons is the weak interaction between tubes and bundles in the CNT assemblies. It is understood that the cross-links in CNT assembly play a key role to improve the performance of CNT-based structure. Different approaches have been taken to create CNT joints. Most of these approaches focus on connecting CNTs by generating new covalent bonding between tubes. In this work, we intend to reinforce the CNT network by locking the contacted CNTs. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was used as precursor because PAN can form graphitic structures after carbonization. The freestanding superthin CNT sheet and CNT yarn were used to evaluate the effects of the PAN precursor to form cross-links between CNTs. The tensile strength of CNT yarn is improved when the yarn is partially infiltrated with PAN and consequently carbonated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy observation of the sheets shows that graphite structures are formed and cross-link CNTs in CNT assembly

    Expression pattern of <i>OsMTP11</i> by real time RT-PCR.

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    <p><b>A.</b> Real time RT-PCR results of <i>OsMTP11</i> expression in wild-type rice plants (Nipponbare) from different tissues or organs. The amplification of the rice <i>OsUBQ5</i> (AK061988) gene was used as a control to normalize the transcript level of <i>OsMTP11</i>. <b>B.</b> Expression analysis of <i>OsMTP11</i> under different heavy metal stresses (Mn, Cd, Zn and Ni) by real time RT-PCR. The expression of <i>OsMTP11</i> is increased in rice roots and shoots treated with 0.5 mM CdCl<sub>2</sub>, 5 mM Zn(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>, 1 mM NiCl<sub>2</sub>, 2 mM MnSO<sub>4</sub>, 300 mM NaCl and 100 μM methyl viologen (MV) for different time periods. <b>C.</b> Expression analysis of <i>OsMTP11</i> under 300 mM NaCl and 100 μM methylviologen (MV) by real time RT-PCR.</p

    Quantitative metrics for weightless initialization models before and after cellular data source improvement.

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    Quantitative metrics for weightless initialization models before and after cellular data source improvement.</p

    Graphical visual representation of Table 5.

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    Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional level set model which only has good robustness to the weak boundary and strong noise of the original target image, this paper proposes an improved algorithm based on the no-weight initialization level set model, introducing bilateral filters and using implicit surface level sets to extract and segment the original target image object more accurately, clearly and intuitively in the evolution process. The experimental simulation results show that, compared with the traditional non-reinitialized level set model segmentation method, the improved method can more accurately extract the edge contours of the target image object, and has better edge contour extraction effect, and the original target noise reduction effect of the improved model is better than that of the model before the improvement. The original target image object edge contour takes less time to extract than the conventional non-reinitialized level set model before the improvement.</div

    Comparison of the edge extraction results of the lighthouse data source images by the model before and after improvement.

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    Comparison of the edge extraction results of the lighthouse data source images by the model before and after improvement.</p
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